paxillin


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paxillin

(pak'sĭl-in),
A 68-kD cytoskeletal protein containing multiple domains that appears to participate in actin-membrane attachment at sites of cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. It may also be involved in the regulation of the growth and organization of the cytoskeleton.
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Clearly, the structural links between actin filaments and integrins are regulated in at least some cell types, and it would not be unreasonable to hypothesize that agents known to alter cell behavior may do so by affecting the expression or function of actin binding proteins such as vinculin, talin, paxillin and integrins that are recruited to focal adhesions (Mwakikunga et al., 2011).
Zhao et al., "Paxillin expression is closely linked to the pathogenesis, progression and prognosis of gastric carcinomas," Oncology Letters, vol.
Jacobson, "JNK phosphorylates paxillin and regulates cell migration," Nature, vol.
In pancreatic cancer, [LPA.sub.1] and [LPA.sub.3] promote proliferation, invasion through MMP2 secretion, and activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Paxillin, as well as drug resistance [117, 118].
Primary antibodies used in immunofluorescence staining were vinculin (EPR8185; Epitomics) and paxillin (ab32084; Abcam).
In addition, IPTP also affected the paxillin signaling pathway, which is involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, an important process in adipocyte differentiation (Kawaguchi et al.
Feng et al., "Fascin-1, ezrin and paxillin contribute to the malignant progression and are predictors of clinical prognosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma," PLoS ONE, vol.
In order to propagate intracellular signaling cascades, integrins need to connect actin cytoskeleton by recruiting a small repertoire of linker proteins such as paxillin, talin, vinculin, and a-actinin [55, 56] as the short cytoplasmic tails of these multi-subunit proteins lack actin-binding capacity [57], the only exception being integrin [beta]4, which has ~1000 amino acids in its cytoplasmic tail (compared to that of a typical integrin j subunit, which is less than 75 amino acids long) and connects to the keratin cytoskeleton specifically [58].
Vinculin is a large protein that binds multiple cytoskeletal proteins, actin, [alpha-]actinin, talin, paxillin, VASP, ponsin, vinexin, and protein kinase C (PKC) which have been suggested to be the adhesion scaffold that connects early adhesion sites to actin-driven protrusive machinery in enabling motility [312].
Immunoblotting was performed using primary antibodies against Src, phosphorylated-Src (p-Src), paxillin, and phosphorylated-paxillin (p-PXNCell Signaling Technology, Beverly, MA) and ERK1/2, phosphorylated-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), c-Fos, C/EBP-[beta], phosphorylated-C/EBP-[beta] (p-C/EBP-[beta]), FAK, and phosphorylated-FAK (p-FAK)(Santa Cruz, CA, USA).
Zhang et al., "Overexpression of paxillin correlates with tumor progression and predicts poor survival in glioblastoma," CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 2016.
These include the nucleus (tagged by the protein lamin B1), mitochondria (Tom20), microtubules (alpha-tubulin), cell-to-cell junctions (desmoplakin) and adhesion (paxillin).