Following Paul Broca and Paul Topinard, the science of anthropology (anthropologie) was primarily a comparative anatomy of races, the 'natural history of mankind', the universal attempt to display all peoples around the world in a table of racial types.
Initially devoted to archaeology, he shifted his interest to the methodological core of Paul Topinard's anthropologie: anthropometric methods and racial typification.
Paul Topinard, Elements d' anthropologie generale (Paris: Delahaye et Lecrosnier, 1885), pp.
She reminds us that Wharton read Darwin, Spencer, and anthropologists Edward Westermarck and Paul Topinard
, as well as several Darwinian commentators, but in only a few instances can she show direct imprints of their work on Wharton's fiction.