maternal effect

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maternal effect

maternal effect

an environmental phenomenon in which the phenotype of an offspring is influenced by the maternal tissue. An example is the adverse influence of maternal smoking on the weight of the unborn baby.

maternal

pertaining to the female parent.

maternal antibodies
see maternal antibody and passive immunity.
maternal bond
see dam-offspring bond.
maternal effect
the transitory influence of the mother on the phenotype of her offspring, caused by factors such as milk yield and uterine environment.
maternal neglect
failure of the dam to stay with the neonate, failure to groom it, help it to feed, find it if separated. The extreme degree is desertion. Characteristic of some breeds, e.g. merino ewes. See also mismothering.
maternal nutritional status
body condition of a dam, pregnant or with a neonate at foot; important management feature as insurance for the survival of the offspring.
maternal obstetric paralysis
a common abnormality after a difficult calving, especially in a heifer. It is caused by pressure on peripheral nerves, and manifests itself as weakness, paresthesia in one hindleg, or difficulty or inability to rise. The ligaments, joints and muscles are normal. See also obturator paralysis.
maternal pelvic inlet
the size of the aperture leading from the peritoneal to the pelvic cavity.
References in periodicals archive ?
These variances indicated that the traits studied were under the influence of both maternal and paternal effects with additive and dominant genes.
Scientists made the discovery while engaged in a project to work out the molecular blueprint of a paternal effect gene.
However, whether a paternal effect or a response to selection, the effect is not in the direction expected; offspring developed slower on the host their father was reared on.
K], inferred from the reciprocal factorial experiment: MGS x sire(PGS), PGS x dam(MGS), and dam(MGS) x sire(PGS), relating respectively to interactions of the maternally transmitted nuclear effect with the paternal effect, to interactions of paternally transmitted nuclear effect with maternal effect, and to interactions of extranuclear contributions of both parents.
To control for the possibility that the negative variance components and paternal effect might be artifacts of an unbalanced crossing design, we used a maximum likelihood method to determine whether the paternal effect would persist when negative variance components were constrained to zero.
The nature of this paternal effect was clarified when we compared offspring sired by the Romanian male with their half sibs sired by Swedish males.
Note, however, that the transmission of nonnuclear genes through sperm does not guarantee a paternal effect on progeny phenotype unless these genes have strong phenotypic effects.
Significant paternal effects were found for days to emergence, days to first leaf (Table 2B), and seed mass per fruit (Table 3B), and there was also an indication of a paternal effect on days to second leaf (P = 0.
and paternal effects of imprisonment on child educational outcomes).
Fathers have important influences on adolescent children (Cookston & Findlay, 2006; Regnerus & Luchies, 2006), but most research examining paternal effects on development, as well as research on the factors influencing father involvement, concerns the early period of the child's life.
Roff & Sokolovska 2004) Another study of Gryllus showed paternal effects on nymphal traits, perhaps also through maternal provisioning (Weigensberg et al.