Note, however, that the transmission of nonnuclear genes through sperm does not guarantee a paternal effect
on progeny phenotype unless these genes have strong phenotypic effects.
The nature of this paternal effect
was clarified when we compared offspring sired by the Romanian male with their half sibs sired by Swedish males.
However, the absence of significant variation among maternal half-sib families suggests that variation among paternal half-sib families may be due to a nonnuclear paternal effect
. In particular, the sire-nested-within-diallel component of variance was significantly larger than the dam-nested-within-diallel component ([F.sub.9,9] = 7.51, P = 0.003).
Chetan and Dada drew attention to the importance of male factors in the success of implantation and in the clinical pregnancy rate , especially the paternal effect
of sperm DNA damage in the stages of embryonic development, and also criticized the fact that the male factors have not been studied in this study.
The testers/pollinators denoted normal portion of paternal effect
over maternal for bolls plant-1 (20.83 %), boll weight (27.91%), and micronaire value (29.67%).
(22) However, in a separate analysis of the same 98 prenatally diagnosed cases in New York State, Hook and Cross found no paternal effect
(Jyothy et al 2000).
Nevertheless recent studies have pointed that not only maternal improper physiological response but also paternal effect
had an important role in the pathogenesis.2 Epidemiological studies have showed that maternal exposure to paternal sperm cells had protective effect against preeclampsia.
Professor Hasan Arshad, who conducted the research, said: "We have known for decades that allergy runs in the family and many thought that maternal effect was greater than paternal effect
due to a mother's closeness to her child, but we have discovered the inheritance is from mother to daughter and father to son," Prof Arshad said.
"We have known for decades that allergy runs in the family and many thought that maternal effect was greater than paternal effect
due to a mothers' closeness to her child, but we have discovered the inheritance is from mother to daughter and father to son," Prof Arshad said.
However, there is almost no evidence of a paternal effect
on the sex ratio in non-human mammals.
genes are important because without them a fertilised egg cannot develop into an adult.
Such a paternal effect
would be expected if there was selection on both parents.