Potts, Contemporary Irish Poetry and the Pastoral Tradition.
Pastoral has long been a contentious genre of poetry reputed for its false idealization of the countryside from the perspective of the city, bolstering the structures of power and oppression.
This article attempts to analyze a shift in the ancient genre of pastoral in the poetry of the Southern modernists, Allen Tate and John Crowe Ransom, a shift that seeks to account for the historical penetration of nature and that is often aestheticized as the ironical counter-text of the "cold" pastoral.
One might argue that the pastoral is the proper literary extension of the agrarian impulse these two poets showed when, together with ten other Southerners, they produced their manifesto I'll take my stand (1930) (1) and defended a traditionalist, organic South against the industrial values of the rest of America.
The Virgilian Pastoral
Tradition: From the Renaissance to the Modern Era.
She proposes an intertextual study of nine novels by Ernest Gaines, Toni Morrison, and Gloria Naylor as signifying on Jean Toomer's Cane, which inaugurates what she calls the African American pastoral
Under the influence of agricultural works--Virgil's Georgies, Roman agricultural writings, seventeenth-century American natural resource surveys, eighteenth-century georgic poetry, and nineteenth-century technical agricultural works--Thoreau turns to the georgic mode in Walden as a means to integrate creative artistic work and the natural environment in a way unavailable to the more familiar pastoral
tradition, a modal shift evident in Thoreau-inspired writing in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
I use the word "culture" to connote the size and spiral of a literary industry grown up around creating pastoral
texts and then revising them, either through further pastoral
texts--usually referred to either as revisionist pastorals
or antipastorals, though the terms are not necessarily synonymous--or through critical theory.
If the language of "renouncing impiety and worldly passions" and being "self-controlled, upright, and godly" seems oppressive, perhaps it says more about us and our culture than it does about the intentions of the writer of the Pastoral
After James' plans for a match between Prince Charles and the Spanish Infanta collapsed in 1623, England was gripped by heightened antipathy towards Spain, and Browne returned to Britannia's Pastorals
in 1624 to champion Protestant militancy.
With growing interest in European Renaissance pastoral
, witnessed by recent publications such as those of Louise George Clubb and Jane C.
Summit offered an epiphany among conferences.