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Louis (1822–1895). French chemist and bacteriologist, founder of microbiology and developer of the method of vaccination by attenuated virus. By optical investigation of racemic acid, he discovered a new class of isomeric substances which led to work by others on stereochemistry and for which he received the ribbon of the Legion of Honor. Pasteur came to the rescue of the wine industry by his interest in fermentation, and showed that spoiling of wine caused by microorganisms could be prevented by partial heat sterilization (pasteurization), a process now applied to many perishable foods. Experimental foundation was given to his ideas of fermentation and the long-accepted theory of spontaneous generation was disposed of once and for all. Later he came to the rescue of the silkworm industry and found methods for detecting and preventing pébrine and flâcherie, the two diseases that were destroying it. He turned his attention then to anthrax, chicken cholera, and hydrophobia (rabies), and developed preventive inoculations against them. The Pasteur Institute was opened shortly thereafter and institutions were founded all over the world for inoculation against rabies.


Louis, French chemist and bacteriologist, 1822-1895. See: Pasteur vaccine, Pasteur effect, Pasteur pipette.

Pasteur, Louis

Etymology: French chemist, 1822-1895
promoter of the germ theory of infection and developer of the pasteurization process to kill pathogenic organisms in milk. Pasteur also developed several vaccines and pioneered the development of stereochemistry by separating mirror image isomers.


named after Louis Pasteur, French microbiologist and biochemist.

Pasteur-Chamberland filter
Pasteur effect
the decrease in the rate of glycolysis and the suppression of lactate accumulation by tissues or microorganisms in the presence of oxygen.