Persons under age 21 are funneled away from the slot casino to stairs and elevators that lead to the second floor card room, parimutuel betting area, and the doors leading to the outdoor racetrack grandstand.
The system as designed and installed features more than 700 carefully placed, top-quality pan-tilt-zoom digital cameras around the casino, count rooms, and parimutuel betting area.
where the independent variables are defined in Table 1 and represent, respectively, measures of tax effort, mean per capita personal income, a dummy variable accounting for the absence of a state sales tax, an index of tourism for the state,(6) per capita spendable revenue generated from parimutuel betting in the state, percentage of the state's border contiguous with a state or states with lotteries, and an error term with the usual properties.
As indicated by the coefficient on PARICAP in Table 2, states with parimutuel betting are more likely to have adopted a lottery, and have adopted a lottery sooner than states in which parimutuel betting does not exist.
In other words, expected per capita lottery profits are over 29 percent lower in states with parimutuel betting than in states without parimutuel betting.
The ability of a given state's residents to cross the border to purchase lottery tickets in contiguous states, and the ability to engage in parimutuel betting in a state are substitutes for the purchase of lottery tickets in the given state and significantly reduce the expected net spendable revenue from adopting and operating a lottery in that state.