The formulation of PPIs ensures that, following absorption into the plasma, they accumulate in the gastric parietal cells
. This means they do not affect other proton pumps in tissues elsewhere in the body.
 On the other hand, parietal cells
are found just above the chief cells.
Acid suppression by proton pump inhibitors enhances aquaporin-4 and KCNQ1 expression ingastric fundic parietal cells
are mitochondria-rich whereas chief cells only show weak porin expression (Figures 6(b) and 6(f) and Figures 2(g), 2(h), and 2(i)).
However, her histopathological evaluation of the small bowel showed villous atrophy, apoptotic bodies, and complete absence of goblet and Paneth cells; biopsies of the stomach showed an unusual pattern of injury with chronic inflammation, glandular abscesses, and parietal cell
atrophy while in the colon, there was increased apoptosis and marked loss of goblet cells and Paneth cells.
It is defined by the presence of antibodies against the parietal cells
of the stomach which produce intrinsic factor, resulting in insufficient absorption of vitamin B12.
In atrophic gastritis the parietal cells
 are destroyed by autoantibodies towards the H+K+-ATPase on the surface of the cell .
The mainstay of acid production in stomach is the secretion of hydrogen ions by parietal cells
located in gastric mucosa.
The primary parietal cells
divided repeatedly through periclinal and anticlinal divisions to form the subepidermal endothecium and two middle layers (Fig.
Intrinsic Factor is produced by the Parietal Cells
that line the wall of the stomach.
* H2- found in the gastric epithelium (parietal cells
) and the airways
TAKECAB, discovered by Takeda, is a new medicine for treating acid-related diseases with a novel mechanism of action called potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CABs) which competitively inhibits the binding of potassium ions to H+,K+-ATPase (also known as the proton pump) in the final step of gastric acid secretion in gastric parietal cells
. Vonoprazan fumarate has fast-acting, strong and sustained acid secretion inhibitory effects.