selfish DNA

(redirected from Parasitic DNA)

junk DNA

that portion of DNA that is not transcribed and expressed, comprising a major fraction of the base pairs of the human genome; much of this DNA is repetitive in seuqence and appears to serve no purpose; its function is not known. segments of DNA that appear to serve no function and are replicated along with the rest of the DNA that serves vital functions; examples are pseudogenes and tandemly repeated DNA sequences that seem functionless but are retained by unequal crossing-over.
Synonym(s): selfish DNA
Parasitic sequences of DNA that increase in the population—usually to the detriment of the host organism—by inserting extra copies of themselves into the genome

junk DNA

(jŭngk)
The portion of DNA that is not transcribed and expressed, comprising about 90% of the 3 billion base pairs of the human genome; its function is not known.
Synonym(s): selfish DNA.

selfish DNA

DNA with no apparent function other than to ensure its own maintenance and replication, using its host to do so. The DNA integrates into a host REPLICON, in order to be replicated and passed on to future GENERATIONS (2).

DNA


DNA binding proteins
are of two general types, histone proteins which are part of the unit structure of chromosomes called nucleosomes and nonhistone proteins which are present in small amounts and include regulatory proteins.
chromosomal DNA
circular DNA
a DNA molecule that is a closed-ring structure, found in mitochondria, prokaryote chromosomes, plasmids, and certain viruses.
closed DNA complexes
the first of two kinetically distinct steps required for RNA polymerase to initiate transcription in which the RNA polymerase holoenzyme binds electrostatically to the promoter DNA.
DNA construct
a DNA molecule which has been inserted into a cloning vector.
copy DNA
a DNA copy of mRNA which contains only regulatory and coding sequences, i.e. introns have been removed. mRNA is copied into double-stranded DNA using reverse transcriptase; the cDNA can then be cloned and amplified and introduced into an expression vector (plasmid or phage) and its protein product produced in either bacterial, yeast, insect or mammalian cells. Called also cDNA.
DNA deletion
DNA double helix
see double helix.
duplex DNA
double-stranded DNA.
end labeling DNA
methods for labeling DNA with radioisotopes or other detectable marker molecules at the ends using the terminal transferase 3′-labeling or polynucleotide kinase for 5′-labeling.
episomal DNA
that present in a cell as extra chromosomal; exemplified by plasmids of prokaryotic cells. See plasmid.
eukaryotic DNA
exogenous DNA
the DNA that has been introduced into a host by cloning.
DNA glycosylases
enzymes involved in the excision-repair mechanisms for DNA.
heteroduplex DNA
duplex DNA with each strand from a different origin.
DNA gyrase
see gyrase.
DNA library
a collection of cloned DNA molecules from a genome.
DNA ligase
an enzyme that seals nicks in the DNA helix, joins Okazaki fragments together during DNA replication and is essential in recombinant DNA technology for DNA cloning.
DNA microarray
an ordered set of thousands of different oligonucleotides immobilized on a microscope slide or other solid surface used for the detection of cognate nucleotide sequences such as the pattern of gene expression in a particular cell population by hybridization with fluorescently labeled cDNA prepared from total mRNA isolated from the cells.
mobile DNA
a sequence present in the variable locations on the chromosome. Called also jumping genes. See also retrotransposon and transposable genetic elements.
open DNA complex
a local opening of about 10 base pairs formed at the transcription initiation site following the electrostatic binding of RNA polymerase holoenzyme to the promoter region.
DNA polymerase
of Escherichia coli; has three distinct enzymatic activities: (a) a 5′ to 3′ polymerase activity which, under the direction of a template DNA, catalyzes the addition of mononucleotide units, produced from deoxynucleoside 5′-triphosphates, to the 3′-hydroxyl terminus of a primer chain; (b) a 5′ to 3′ exonuclease active only on duplex DNA; (c) a 3′ to 5′ exonuclease primarily active on single-stranded DNA which can selectively remove mismatched terminal nucleotides, thus carrying out a proofreading function. Additionally it catalyzes both the pyrophosphorolysis of DNA, a reaction which is the reverse of polymerization, and pyrophosphate exchange which represents a repetitive sequence of nucleotide addition and pyrophosphorolysis.
DNA probe
see probe (2).
DNA repair
a series of enzymatic mechanisms whereby errors or damage to one of the two DNA strands are removed by excision and replaced by correct nucleotides using the undamaged strand as template. The mechanisms include removal of lesions of depurination and DNA glycosylases which recognize altered bases.
repeat DNA, repetitive DNA
includes (a) satellite DNA and so-called (b) interspersed repeated DNA sequences. The latter are interspread throughout the chromosomes in hundreds of thousands of individual copies, each about 300 nucleotides long; they are, unlike satellite DNA, transcribed.
satellite DNA
serially repeated DNA sequences of one or a few nucleotides with a repeat length of up to 250 nucleotides that are not transcribed and commonly located in the heterochromatin associated with the centrometric regions of chromosomes.
selfish DNA
a mobile DNA element that appears to have no function except to replicate itself. Part of junk DNA.
DNA sequencing
determining the order of nucleotides in DNA from which amino acid in a polypeptide chain can be predicted.
single-copy DNA
the fraction of DNA that contains most of the protein-coding genes and reassociates most slowly.
single-stranded DNA
produced when double-stranded DNA is denatured or found naturally in some viruses.
spacer DNA
single-copy DNA sequences which do not encode proteins or functional RNA molecules.
supercoiled DNA
the double helix is itself twisted.
superhelical DNA
a twisted structure formed by circular DNA molecules. See also supercoiled DNA (above).
DNA transcription
DNA translation
unique DNA
DNA sequences that occur only once in the haploid genome.
DNA viruses
contain a single molecule of DNA that is either double or single stranded. Parvoviruses and circoviruses are single stranded, hepadnaviruses are partially double stranded and all others are double stranded. DNA virus families are: Poxviridae, Asfarviridae,Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, and Hepadnaviridae.
Z-DNA
an alternative structural form of DNA which differs from the more commonly occurring B- and related A-form in that the helix is left handed compared with the right hand helixes of B- and A-forms. Z is for zig-zag. The functional significance of Z-DNA is unknown.
References in periodicals archive ?
This may be because the sample volume used for nucleic acids extraction (50mg) was insufficient to detect parasitic DNA, as the concentration of tissue cysts is random, or because PCR assay presents a reduced ability to detect positive samples.
Transposons are parasitic DNA elements that when activated can insert into new genomic locations, leading to genome instability.
However, parasitic DNA began to be detected in many participants after treatment ended, by day 60, and continued to be found throughout follow-up.
In prokaryotes, a variety of parasitic DNA elements do, not uncommonly, manage to get themselves transferred horizontally under stress, sometimes taking a few host genes out of several thousand with them--horizontal gene transfer rather than sex.
Sontheimer said that CRISPR interference works a little like RNA interference - a trick that complex eukaryotic cells use to block viruses and parasitic DNA stretches called transposons.
This is the first time that parasitic DNA has been found in the human genome, says Antonio Teixeira of the University of Brasilia in Brazil.
John MacArthur, who specializes in malaria epidemiology for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, told this newspaper that the only way to tell if the pools are related to each other, and to the two infected teens, is by testing the DNA of parasites extracted from the infected insects and comparing it to the parasitic DNA obtained from the human cases.
In experiment 1, both transposons were less abundant in asexual descendants than in their ancestral spores, as predicted by the parasitic DNA hypothesis.
The nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii may be a particularly restrictive environment for parasitic DNA.
It may be thought unnecessary for host genomes to remove parasitic DNA by unequal crossover because sequences which reduce host fitness would be removed by selection before becoming established in a population.