Generally, pyoderma gangrenosum is known to be common among patients with systemic diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, polyarthritis, diverticulosis, paraproteinaemia
, myeloma, leukaemia, active chronic hepatitis, and Behcet syndrome.
Secondary causes of hypertriglyceridaemia Medical disorders Type 2 diabetes/metabolic syndrome Hypothyroidism Renal failure Systemic lupus erythematosus Paraproteinaemia
(rare) Lifestyle Obesity Increased alcohol consumption Diet (excess energy, high fat, high glycaemic index) Medication Corticosteroids Retinoids Oestrogen (especially when given orally) Tamoxifen Protease inhibitors (the risk is highest with ritonavir) Cholestyramine Leflunomide Second-generation antipsychotics Cyclosporin Sirolimus Thiazides Beta-blockers Other Pregnancy (in susceptible individuals) Auto-immune states
Other known associations are acquired factor VIII antibodies, paraproteinaemia
, and systemic mast cell disease.
 presented seven cases of HIV-associated paraproteinaemia
, of which five were with IgG1K, one with IgG3X and one with IgAX.
Further immunofixation with IgD and IgE antisera identified IgD-kappa paraproteinaemia
and kappa light chain in the urine.
Pseudohypercalcaemia in two patients with IgM paraproteinaemia
. Ann Clin Biochem.
Human intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) are used in various neurological diseases, especially myasthenia gravis (MG), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), and less commonly in paraneoplastic polyneuropathy (PNP), polyneuropathy associated with paraproteinaemia
(PAP), and stiff-man syndrome (SMS).
Isaacs' syndrome may occur as a paraneoplastic manifestation of malignancies such as small-cell lung carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, plasmacytoma with IgM paraproteinaemia
and bladder carcinoma (2,22).
Serum electrophoresis for paraproteinaemia
confirmed a free lambda light-chain band in the gamma-region with a kappa/lambda ratio of 0.06; urine electrophoresis demonstrated Bence-Jones proteins.
Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis) * Myeloproliferative diseases * Nephrotic syndrome * Obesity (body mass index [greater than or equal to] 30 kg/m2) * Paraproteinaemia
* Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria * Personal or family history of VTE * Pregnancy or puerperium * Recent myocardial infarction or stroke * Severe infection * Use of oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy * Varicose veins with associated phlebitis * Inherited thrombophilias, e.g.
Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratoses associated with paraproteinaemia
. Australas J Dermatol 2008;49:233-6.
and dysproteinaemias--multiple myeloma, cryoglobulinaemia