of the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris).
occurs through scarified or damaged skin (or occasionally through the oral mucosa), followed by virus replication in keratinocytes (Buttner and Rjiha, 2002; Flamming et al., 2007; Gibs, 1984; Mc Keever et al., 1988).
An epidemic of parapoxvirus infection
among cattle: isolation and antibody survey.
Parapoxvirus infection was suspected, and the lesion was removed surgically.
Histopathology and microscopy can support a diagnosis of a parapoxvirus infection. PCR can definitively identify orf virus (4) and is available at CDC (telephone: 404-639-4129); clinicians should contact their state health department to request PCR testing.
These results suggest the patients had previous OPXV infections, given that an active parapoxvirus infection
was demonstrated in patient 4 and vaccination could be ruled out for patients 10 (a 20-year-old) and 14 (a 24-year-old) based on their age.
Histopathology indicated nonspeciiqc inflammation, but serologic evaluation revealed parapoxvirus IgM >1:160 and IgG of 1:512, consistent with current or recent parapoxvirus infection. All lesions healed spontaneously within 2 weeks.
Negative-stain electron microscopy can confirm a parapoxvirus infection by demonstrating classic ovoid cross-hatched virions (Figure 2) but cannot distinguish orf virus from other parapoxviruses such as paravaccinia (pseudocowpox) virus; serologic testing has the same limitation.
The specialists indicated that the lesions appeared to be typical of parapoxvirus infection
. CF interviewed case-patients 1-3 again, and they reported having knife wounds after preparing lambs for the religious feast and seeing lesions on the gums and tongue of 1 lamb.
in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the German North Sea.
in New Zealand farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).