All TA activation-positive patients had complicated pneumonia with parapneumonic effusions
, empyema, necrotizing pneumonia, and/or lung abscesses, as did 36% of the negative group.
Prior antibiotic use has been shown to be an important cause for subsequent pleural fluid culture negativity [2,8] Streptococcal pneumoniae associated parapneumonic effusions
and empyemas are also frequently culture negative.
Lung Therapeutics has designed LTI-01 to treat empyema and Complicated Parapneumonic Effusions
, two complications of pneumonia that can involve fibrinous scarring that inhibits fluid drainage.
Data regarding the prevalence and serotype distribution of pneumoccoccal parapneumonic effusions
before the implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine are limited in our country.
Immediate drainage is not required for all patients with complicated parapneumonic effusions
Bacteriology of complicated parapneumonic effusions
However, high FADA levels can also occur in other disease conditions and particularly in empyemas, lymphomas, carcinomas and parapneumonic effusions
due to proliferation of large numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes in these conditions, resulting in false-positive results and misdiagnosis.
usually carry a good outcome with therapeutic interventions.
Causes of an exudate Frequent * Tuberculosis * Malignancy * Parapneumonic effusions
Infrequent * Rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders * Post-myocardial infarct syndrome * Post-coronary artery bypass * Asbestos-related effusion * Pancreatitis * Drugs (Table 3)
Diagnosis and management of parapneumonic effusions
Use of fibrinolytic agents in the management of complicated parapneumonic effusions
Therapy of parapneumonic effusions
in children: Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery versus conventional thoracostomy drainage.