This is consistent with previous results indicating that Scirpeae is paraphyletic
with respect to Cariceae (Leveille-Bourret et al.
In this opsin phylogeny InvC sequences form a monophyletic clade, but it is poorly supported; and in some cases this group is recovered as a number of basally branching paraphyletic
clades separated by taxa: panarthropods, echinoderms, and annelids (Bok et al., 2017).
In accordance with this pattern, a paraphyletic
Pterobryaceae constituted the sister taxon of Cryphaeaceae (Fig.
Previous studies of Dactylotini including Hesperotettix viridis Thomas, 1872 discovered that this tribe is paraphyletic
(Chapco 2006, Chintauan-Marquier et al.
The Prosigmodon species appear as a paraphyletic
group with Prosigmodon holocuspis in the base of a Sigmodon clade, and Prosigmodon oroscoi, Prosigmodon ferrusquiai, and Prosigmodon chihuahuensis at the base of all of the cricetids analyzed and close to C.
(2011), using complete sequences of cyt-b, recovered a paraphyletic
Corrientes group that included C.
Several genera, including Aleurodicus, were resolved as paraphyletic
. Aleurodicus rugioperculatus (RSW) is placed in the tree within the clade containing A.
Recent papers describing species of Hyphessobrycon frequently indicate that the genus is paraphyletic
(Ingenito et al 2013, Carvalho & Langeani 2013, Teixeira et al 2013), without deep exploration of the relationships of its subunits or their relationships.
While morphologically-based trees recognize mantle mites as a distinct monophyletic grouping (Edwards & Vidrine 2006), molecular phylogenies suggest that these mites are part of a paraphyletic
grade that includes gill mite taxa (Edwards et al.
Of the three crambine genera examined, Diatraea was monophyletic and Chilo paraphyletic
. Eoreuma was basal to the other two genera.
In both cases, Archaea appeared as a basal paraphyletic
group of the ToLs and the common origin of Bacteria and Eukarya was maintained.
Meier, "The Muscoidea (Diptera: Calyptratae) are paraphyletic
: evidence from four mitochondrial and four nuclear genes," Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol.