paraneoplastic syndromes

paraneoplastic syndrome

Oncology A co-morbid condition due to the indirect–remote or 'biologic' effects of malignancy, which may be the first sign of a neoplasm or its recurrence; PSs occur in > 15% of CAs, are caused by hormones, growth factors, biological response modifiers, and other as-yet unidentified factors, and may regress with treatment of the primary tumor. See Ectopic hormone.
Paraneoplastic syndromes
GI tract, eg anorexia, vomiting, protein-losing enteropathy, liver disease
Hematologic, eg leukemoid reaction, reactive eosinophilia, peripheral 'cytoses or 'cytopenias, hemolysis, DIC, thromboembolism, thrombophlebitis migrans
Hormonal effects
Metabolic disease, eg lactic acidosis, hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy, hyperamylasemia, hyperlipidemia
Neuromuscular, eg peripheral neuropathy, myopathy, CNS, spinal cord degeneration, inflammation
Renal, eg nephrotic syndrome, uric acid nephropathy
Skin, eg bullous mucocutaneous lesions, acquired ichthyosis, acanthosis nigricans, dermatomyositis
Others, eg callus formation, hypertension, and amyloidosis

paraneoplastic syndromes

(pă-ră-nēō-plăs′-tĭk)
Indirect effects of cancers, such as metabolic disturbances or hormonal excesses produced by chemicals released by tumor cells. Tumors such as small-cell carcinoma of the lung, hypernephroma, and neuroendocrine cancers are often responsible.

paraneoplastic syndromes

Syndromes caused by the secretion into the blood of the products of cancers, usually polypeptide hormones, which affect parts remote from the tumours. Thus, lung cancers can secrete ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE or ACTH and cause confusing effects.
References in periodicals archive ?
Paraneoplastic syndromes of the neuromuscular junction: therapeutic options in myasthenia gravis, lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome, and neuromyotonia.
Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with primary malignancies of the head and neck.
Reports in dogs, cats, and people describe paraneoplastic syndromes associated with thymoma, such as myasthenia gravis, hypercalcemia, polymyositis, cytopenia, and dermatitis.
Timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment of paraneoplastic syndromes can greatly affect patient's clinical outcomes.
We believe PET-CT should play a more important role in inflammatory myopathies, not only because it is a full body scan but also because of the relationship with paraneoplastic syndromes.
Lung cancer can also present as paraneoplastic syndromes like clubbing, hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy, myasthenic syndromes, hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia, Cushing's syndrome and carcinoid syndromes and are less common in adenocarcinoma than in other histologic types.
A possible role for alpha-transforming growth factor in cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes. N Engl J Med 1987;317(25):1582-7.
The importance of understanding the pathophysiology and biology of many paraneoplastic syndromes associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) lies in the fact that these protean symptoms might be the initial presentation of some either primary or recurrent diseases.
(2) Differential diagnosis of NL includes leptomeningeal lymphomatosis, nerve damage by herpes zoster or enlarged lymph nodes, chemotherapy or radiation plexopathy, and lymphoma associated vasculitis and paraneoplastic syndromes. (1) Even in cases with neurophysiolgic evidence of nerve involvement, nerve biopsy may not demonstrate lymphomatous infiltration because of its irregular involvement.
Thymic tumors are often associated with paraneoplastic syndromes, with myasthenia gravis being the most frequent [3,4].
There are no known risk factors, and there is a strong association with paraneoplastic syndromes, the most common being myasthenia gravis (MG).