sp., Echvardsiella tarda, Photobacterium damselae and nematodes as Anguillicola crassus (Kajita et al., 1990; Geets et al., 1992; Baba et al., 1993; Findlay et al., 2000; Sahoo and Mukherjee, 2002; Leano et al., 2003; Munday and Zilberg, 2003).
droebachiensis by the protozoan Paramoeba
invadens at high water temperatures in summer causes mass mortality, also resulting in kelp reforestation (Johnson & Mann 1988).
Many theories about the cause have been put forth, including pesticide applications, effluents from sewage treatment plants, dredging sediment, ecological and climatic factors, and infection by a parasitic paramoeba
infection is suspected but the predisposing factors are unknown (Van Patten and French 2000).
They found a Paramoeba
parasite (a single-celled, microscopic organism that lives off other creatures) swimming in hundreds of samples taken from dead lobsters.
A protozoan parasite, Paramoeba
invadens, was recommended and tested in the laboratory as a biological control agent because natural outbreaks of this ameba greatly reduced sea urchin abundance (Jones 1985, Jones and Scheibling 1985, Miller 1985).
The lobster population in western Long Island Sound has been decimated in recent years, and a variety of factors have been implicated, including elevated temperatures, anoxia, paramoeba
infestation, and exposure to pesticides and other chemicals entering the marine environment (Long Island Sound Lobster Health Symposium, 2003).
The lobsters examined suffered from a Paramoeba
2003), as well as those related to protozoan parasites such as Paramoeba
(Mullen et al.
KEY WORDS: lobster, mortality, Long Island Sound, disease, pesticides, paramoeba
, temperature, Homarus americanus
Whereas the exact cause or causes of the mortality are still not precisely known, dead and dying lobsters in the initial phase of the die-off were diagnosed with infections with paramoeba
, a newly recognized disease condition of lobsters.
(2004) have reported that infection of a parasitic paramoeba
was the primary cause of the mass mortality of American lobsters in western Long Island Sound (New York and Connecticut, USA) in 1999.