Detection of NDV first time in Indonesia and at the same time at Newcastle-on-tyne, England since 1926 the various genotypes were documented for different panzootic
, the NDV genotypes I, II, III and IV contains in class II were responsible for first ND panzootic
that last since 1920s to 1960s (Alexander, 2001).
Identify the following case studies as endemic, enzootic, sporadic, epidemic, epizootic, pandemic, or panzootic
Racing and show pigeons have also been infected with NDV and in the late 1970s a panzootic
originating from the Middle East occurred in these birds.
Outbreaks and the emergence of novel fungal infections: lessons from the panzootic
of amphibian chytridiomycosis.
These results showed that at least 3 distinct groups existed in chicken flocks in China, and A2-like and M41-like viruses were mainly responsible for the IB panzootic
, consistent with findngs of our previous studies (5,16).
Management of the panzootic
white-nose syndrome through culling of bats.
One case with striking similarities is the panzootic
chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis), which has caused global decreases among amphibian species (30).
subtype H5N1 virus strains circulating among poultry and wild birds are derived from the Asian influenza (H5N1) lineage first identified in the People's Republic of China in 1996 (3).
The current panzootic
of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) is described event by event since 1996, and the phylogenetic relationships among influenza viruses (H5N1) and potential methods of spread are discussed.
The unprecedented panzootic
caused by the HPAI viruses (H5N1) has been mediated by the movement of poultry and poultry products and, in some instances (e.
approximately equal to] 35 years before the onset of the currently recognized panzootic
in domestic poultry.
In many places, preparations to meet the threat of biocrime or bioterror are strengthening the capacity of public health systems to respond to future natural threats of pandemic and panzootic