c) The spa type and presence or Panton-Valentine leukocidin
(PVL) genes are indicated for each MRSA isolate.
Dufour P, Gillet Y, Bes M, et al (2002), Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in France: emergence of a single clone that produces Panton-Valentine leukocidin
A geographic variant of the Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin
toxin and the origin of community-associated methicillin-resistant S.
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Switzerland contains the Panton-Valentine leukocidin
or exfoliative toxin genes.
Association between Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying gene for Panton-Valentine leukocidin
and highly lethal necrotising pneumonia in young immunocompetent patients.
Otto's group to be a candidate factor for increased virulence, suggesting it to be more important than Panton-Valentine leukocidin
Two people are known to have died from Panton-Valentine Leukocidin
(PVL) positive MRSA at the University Hospital of North Staffordshire.
Maribel Espaba died from Panton-Valentine Leukocidin
(PVL)-producing MRSA after contracting the superbug at the University Hospital of North Staffordshire in Stoke-on-Trent.
A Health Protection Agency spokesman said: "Eight cases of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin
(PVL)-positive community-associated MRSA have been identified among individuals in a hospital and their close household contacts in the West Midlands.
(PVL) is a cytotoxin virulence factor associated with severe, rapidly progressive, systemic disease including soft tissue infections and necrotizing pneumonia.
In addition, 10 of 20 CA-MRSA isolates tested positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin
(PVL) gene, which code for a known CA-SA virulence factor.
Community-acquired MRSA tends to be susceptible to those agents, but it often has genes for encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin
, which is the presumed virulence factor for its necrotizing ability, he said.