Alaimo et al., "A multianalyte PCR blood test outperforms single analyte ELISAs (chromogranin A, pancreastatin
, neurokinin A) for neuro-endocrine tumor detection," Endocrine-Related Cancer, vol.
In humans, Cg A is the precursor to several functional peptides including vasostatin-1 (VST I: hCgA1-76), vasostatin-2 (VST II: hCgA1-115), pancreastatin (PST: hCgA357-428), catestatin (CST: hCgA352-372), and parastatin (PARA: pCgA347-419), negatively modulating the neuroendocrine function .
Pancreastatin induces glycogenolysis, inhibits the glucose-induced insulin release through an effect on G-protein and calcium-mediated exocytosis [26, 27], and also stimulates insulin-dependent lipogenesis but inhibits leptin secretion [28, 29].
In addition to the primary function chromogranins in granulogenesis of vesicle formation, CgA is the precursor for many functional peptides such as vasostatin, pancreastatin
, catestatin, parastatin, serpenin, and other peptides that have many physiological functions (including autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine) in the corresponding neuroendocrine physiology.
(15) Pancreastatin, a split product of chromogranin A, is another serum biomarker that may be elevated in up to 81% of patients with carcinoid tumors.
Serum pancreastatin levels predict response to hepatic artery chemoembolization and somatostatin analogue therapy in metastatic neuroendocrine tumors.
induces apoptosis and autophagy in metastatic prostate cancer cells.
(43.) Gonzalez-Yanes C, Sanchez-Margalet V Pancreastatin
, a chromogranin A-derived peptide, inhibits leptin and enhances UCP-2 expression in isolated rat adipocytes.
Lundqvist, "Measurements of chromogranin A, chromogranin B (secretogranin I), chromogranin C (secretogranin II) and pancreastatin
in plasma and urine from patients with carcinoid tumours and endocrine pancreatic tumours," The Journal of Endocrinology, vol.
The CgA([left arrow]301) assay (using antibody 871w-1) is specific for the amidated C-terminus of pancreastatin (16).
In a similar study, plasma CgA was quantified with an RIA using an antiserum raised against C-terminal CgA fragments isolated from urine from a carcinoid tumor patient and a pancreastatin antiserum, respectively, and increased concentrations were measured in 99% with the CgA assay and in 46% with the pancreastatin assay (32).
[CgA(273-301) amide] was measured by RIA using antiserum 871w-1, specific for the amidated COON terminus of pancreastatin
, as detailed elsewhere (21).