Pancreas Transplantation

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Pancreas Transplantation



Pancreas transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased pancreas is replaced with a healthy pancreas that has been obtained immediately after death from an immunologically compatible donor.


The pancreas secretes insulin to regulate glucose (sugar) metabolism. Failure to regulate glucose levels leads to diabetes. Over one million patients in the United States have insulin dependent (type I) diabetes mellitus. Successful pancreas transplantation allows the body to make and secrete its own insulin, and establishes insulin independence for these patients.
Pancreas transplantation is major surgery that requires suppression of the immune system to prevent the body from rejecting the transplanted pancreas. Immunosuppressive drugs have serious side effects. Because of these side effects, in 1996, 85% of pancreas transplants were performed simultaneously with kidney transplants, 10% after a kidney transplant, and only 5% were performed as a pancreas transplant alone.
The rationale for this is that patients will already be receiving immunosuppressive treatments for the kidney transplant, so they might as well receive the benefit of a pancreas transplant as well. Patients considering pancreas transplantation alone must decide with their doctors whether life-long treatment with immunosuppressive drugs is preferable to life-long insulin dependence.
The best candidates for pancreas transplantation are:
  • between the ages of 20-40
  • those who have extreme difficulty regulating their glucose levels
  • those who have few secondary complications of diabetes
  • those who are in good cardiovascular health.


Many people with diabetes are not good candidates for a pancreas transplant. Others do not have tissue compatibility with the donor organ. People who are successfully controlling their diabetes with insulin injections are usually not considered for pancreas transplants.
National Transplant Waiting List By Organ Type (June 2000)
Organ Needed Number Waiting
Kidney 48,349
Liver 15,987
Heart 4,139
Lung 3,695
Kidney-Pancreas 2,437
Pancreas 942
Heart-Lung 212
Intestine 137


Once a donor pancreas is located, the patient is prepared for surgery. Since only about 1,000 pancreas transplants are performed each year in the United States, the operation usually occurs at a hospital where surgeons have special expertise in the procedure.
The surgeon makes an incision under the ribs and locates the pancreas and duodenum. The pancreas and duodenum (part of the small intestine) are removed. The new pancreas and duodenum are then connected to the patient's blood vessels.
Replacing the duodenum allows the pancreas to drain into the gastrointestinal system. The transplant can also be done creating a bladder drainage. Bladder drainage makes it easier to monitor organ rejection. Once the new pancreas is in place, the abdomen and skin are closed. This surgery is often done at the same time as kidney transplant surgery.


After the patient and doctor have decided on a pancreas transplant, a complete immunological study is done to match the patient to a donor. All body functions are evaluated. The timing of surgery depends on the availability of a donated organ.


Patients receiving a pancreas transplantation are monitored closely for organ rejection, and all vital body functions are monitored also. The average hospital stay is three weeks. It takes about six months to recover from surgery. Patients will take immunosuppressive drugs for the rest of their lives.


Diabetes and poor kidney function greatly increase the risk of complications from anesthesia during surgery. Organ rejection, excessive bleeding, and infection are other major risks associated with this surgery.

Normal results

During a nine year period from 1987 to 1996, the patient survival rate for all types of pancreas transplants (with or without associated kidney transplant) was 92% after one year and 86% after three years. In a successful transplant, the pancreas begins producing insulin, bringing the regulation of glucose back under normal body control. Natural availability of insulin prevents the development of additional damage to the kidneys and blindness associated with diabetes. Many patients report an improved quality of life.

Key terms

Duodenum — The section of the small intestine immediately after the stomach.



American Diabetes Association. 1701 North Beauregard Street, Alexandria, VA 22311. (800) 342-2383.
A procedure designed to halt the progression of severe complications of type 1 diabetes—e.g., diabetic neuropathy or end-stage renal disease—and achieve complete glycaemic control; pancreas transplantation requires harvesting of a large segment or the entire pancreas; donors are usually deceased. Patients with pancreatic cancer are not eligible for transplants, given their dismal prognosis due to almost certain cancer recurrence
Complications Post surgery complications include thrombosis, pancreatitis, infection, bleeding and rejection; the latter mandates immunosuppression for the rest of the patient’s life
References in periodicals archive ?
Last year saw the launch of our bone marrow transplantation programme and currently we are at the final stage of preparation to launch pancreas transplantation and islet cell transplantation.
Last year saw the launch of our bone marrow transplantation program and currently we are at the final stage of preparation to launch pancreas transplantation and islet cell transplantation.
Exciting discoveries such as the islet cell and whole pancreas transplantation also seem to be very promising.
Summary: Bengaluru (Karnataka) [India], Oct 31 (ANI): BGS Gleneagles Global Hospital, a part of Parkway Pantai, has recently achieved the rare feat of completing its fifth successful pancreas transplantation in Karnataka.
Pancreas transplantation is a viable therapeutic option for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and may often be performed in conjunction with kidney transplantation, usually simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) but sometimes pancreas transplant after kidney transplantation (PAK).
especially as the outcomes of the first 10 years of kidney and pancreas transplantation compare favourably with international survival data.
Due to serious organ shortage for pancreas transplantation, cell-based therapy represents the most promising option and different potential sources for new E- cells are currently being explored, including embryonic stem cells and other cell types.
The history of pancreas transplantation began on 16 December 1966 in Minneapolis, where Kelly and Lillehei simultaneously transplanted the kidney and pancreas.
Molmenti presents students, instructors, and healthcare professionals with a comprehensive overview of kidney and pancreas transplantation.
Dr Fadhil stated that the training and outfits necessary for pancreas transplantation surgeries have been completed.
Several techniques of pancreas transplantation have been tried in the past four decades, each with a different approach to manage exocrine and endocrine drainages of the pancreas, including bladder vs.
As such, allogeneic pancreas transplantation was developed to achieve normoglycemia and insulin independence.