attapulgite

(redirected from Palygorskite)
Also found in: Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

attapulgite

 [at″ah-pul´jīt]
a clay mineral that contains aluminum silicate and is the main ingredient of fuller's earth; activated attapulgite is a heat-treated form that is administered orally in the treatment of diarrhea.

attapulgite

(at-a-pull-gite) ,

Children's Kaopectate

(trade name),

Fowler’s Anti-Diarrhea Tablets

(trade name),

Fowler's attapulgite oral suspension

(trade name),

Kaopectate

(trade name),

Kaopectate Extra Strength

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: antidiarrheals
Pharmacologic: adsorbents
Pregnancy Category: B

Indications

Adjunct in the symptomatic management of mild to moderate acute diarrhea.

Action

Appears to act by adsorbing bacteria and toxins and decreasing loss of water.

Therapeutic effects

Decreased number and water content of stools.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Action is local. Attapulgite is not absorbed.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Unknown.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile (antidiarrheal effect)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
POunknownunknownunknown

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity; Severe dehydration; Diarrhea that may be caused by parasites; Dysentery.
Use Cautiously in: Pediatric / Geriatric: Children <3 yr or geriatric patients have increased risk of dehydration.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Gastrointestinal

  • constipation

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

May decrease the gastrointestinal absorption of concurrently administered oral medications (administer 2–3 hr before or 2–4 hr after attapulgite).

Route/Dosage

Oral (Adults) 1.2–3 g after each loose stool (not to exceed 9 g/24 hr).
Oral (Children 6–12 yr) 600–1500 mg after each loose stool (not to exceed 4.5 g/24 hr).
Oral (Children 3–6 yr) 300–750 mg after each loose stool (not to exceed 2.25 g/24 hr).

Availability

Oral suspension: 600 mg/15 mLOTC, 750 mg/5 mLOTC, 900 mg/15 mLOTC
Tablets: 630 mgOTC

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess the frequency and consistency of stools and bowel sounds before and throughout course of therapy.
  • Assess fluid and electrolyte balance and skin turgor for dehydration.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Diarrhea (Indications)
Constipation (Side Effects)
Deficient knowledge, related to medication regimen (Patient/Family Teaching)

Implementation

  • Administer after each loose bowel movement until diarrhea is controlled.
    • Do not administer other medications within 2–3 hr before or after attapulgite administration.
  • Oral: Shake suspension well before administration.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional if diarrhea persists longer than 48 hr or if fever or abdominal pain develops.
  • Advise patient or parent not to use attapulgite and to notify health care professional if stool contains blood or mucus or is accompanied by fever.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Decrease in frequency of loose stools.
    • Return to soft, formed stools.
References in periodicals archive ?
This may be attributed to the dissolution of Mg carbonate and some Mgbearing minerals like palygorskite (Xavier et al.
2, it could be illustrated for the XRD patterns of CeO2 /TiO2-Pal, their crystalline phases were identified by comparison with ICDD files (anatase TiO2, 21-1272; Palygorskite, 31-0783; cubic CeO2, 34-0394).
However, aside from its being a potential antibiotic in poultry, little was known about the application of zinc-bearing palygorskite (Zn-Pal) in dairy cattle.
Wang, "Investigation on thermo-rheological properties and stability of SBR modified asphalts containing palygorskite clay," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol.
Palygorskite (Pal) is a type of clay with a unique three-dimensional structure and fibrous morphology, exhibiting chemical and thermal stability, high aspect ratio, large specific surface area (150-200 m /g), and mechanical strength [1,2].
The Langmuir isotherm also provided a better fit to the experimental data than the Freundlich isotherm for MB adsorption on a phosphorous rock [29] and on palygorskite [30].
Though it is known that the ingredients are a plant dye, indigo, and a type of clay known as palygorskite, scientists do not know how they were 'cooked' and combined together.