However in species like puffins, which have to migrate to distant wintering grounds during the non-breeding season, very little is known about how mates maintain their pair-bond
Yet the clueless fellows can change, forming pair-bonds
for life with the opposite sex and even distinguishing between two female strangers.
He is supplementing the food supply of nesting kingfishers as part of a study designed to shed light on the species' breeding biology, especially the importance of the male in the pair-bond
Hoi and colleagues found that many nests housed nestlings fathered outside the pair-bond
in socially monogamous species represents a cooperative partnership that may give advantages for survival," the BBC quoted Dr Elie as saying.
Historians in Europe and the US expose the wide variety of sexual pair-bonds
that Western societies have recognized formally or informally by exploring the margins of marriage during the three centuries that began with the Protestant Reformation--a period they find to resemble the present time of rapid cultural pluralization.
The findings underscore how monogamy and pair-bonds
- relatively rare social formations among mammals - can benefit certain individuals, with potential implications for understanding how human relationship patterns may have evolved.