The amount of target gene was obtained by normalizing to the endogenous reference Pumilio RNA-Binding Family Member 1 (PUM1
) and was expressed relatively to vehicle-treated cells set at 1.
Over increasing durations of hyperglycemia exposure, SP1 mRNA levels were evaluated in HRECs (Figure 4(a)) and ARPE-19 cells (Figure 4(b)) after normalization relative to the mRNA levels of Pumilio homolog 1 (PUM1) and peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA), respectively.
SP1 mRNA levels were normalized relative to the mRNA levels of PUM1 and PPIA in HRECs and RPE cells, respectively.
haESCs have also been applied to screen for genes required for the exit from self-renewal, and novel differentiation factors including Zfp706 and Pum1
were discovered .
miR-221 and In arrested cells, Pum1
is unable to  miR-222 bind to 3'UTR of target mRNA and cannot open its loop structure and therefore restricts miRNA binding.
was previously found to be the most stable endogenous control mRNA and was therefore used as a reference gene to normalize expression levels of target mRNAs .
Identification and gene expression profiling of the Pum1
and Pum2 members of the Pumilio family in the chicken.
To correct for differences in sample quality and cDNA input, we adjusted copy numbers to the arithmetic mean of 5 housekeeper genes [[ACTB.sup.8] ([beta]-actin), PSMC4 (proteasome 26S subunit, ATPase, 4), PUM1
(pumilio homolog 1, Drosophila), MRPL19 (mitochondrial ribosomal protein L19), and SF3A1 (splicing factor 3a, subunit 1, 120 kDa)].