There is, consequently, a significant risk to consumers of the snails, which can accumulate PSP toxins
after predation on the bivalves.
Aliquots ranging from 10 to 30 [micro]L of the standard solutions of PSP toxins
, sample extracts, and blanks were injected into the HPLC system, and the resulting chromatographic peaks as shown in Figure 1 were integrated afterwards .
Shellfish contaminated with PSP toxins
can cause minor to severe illness or even death.
Under the regulations, the total concentration of PSP toxins
in the edible parts of the mollusc must not exceed 80 microgrammes per 100g of mollusc flesh.
Detection methods and their limitations: PSP toxins
in Florida puffer fish responsible for human poisoning events in 2004.
in Canada are produced by several species of dinoflagellates (Alexandrium spp.
The accumulation and transformation of PSP toxins
from the causative dinoflagellates is well known, as reported from field collections and experimental studies of scallops (Shimizu & Yoshioka 1981, Band-Schmidt et al.
Recently, high levels of PSP toxins
were found in abalone, a group of herbivorous gastropods (Nagashima et al.
The effect of mussel size, temperature, seston volume, food quality and volume-specific toxin concentration on the uptake rate of PSP toxins
by mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk).
Does uptake of Alexandrium fundyense cysts contribute to the levels of PSP toxins
found in the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus?
In Spain, the fishery was reopened in 2002, after 10 y of inactivity related to PSP toxins
found during imports into the Japanese market.
consist of a suite of neurotoxins identified as saxitoxin, gonyautoxin, and their derivatives.