It is a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for qualitative and quantitative detection of marine biotoxins ( DSPToxine , PSP toxins
, ASP toxin , ciguatoxin and tetrodotoxin ) , pharmacologically - active substances ( antibiotics , antiparasitic and growth promoting ubstanzen ) and contaminants in different fish and fishery products to be procured under the official control of foodstuffs .
The application of the sxtA4 assay advances these techniques as it allows for the detection of genes linked to the production of PSP toxins
(Murray et al.
The majority of chapters discuss the chemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology, and detection of particular classes of toxins including the newly included categories as well as PSP toxins
, polytoxins, ostreocins, cyanobacterial toxins, cylindrospermopsin, cyclic imines, and polyketides, punctuated with additional chapters regarding therapeutics, nutraceuticals, drug development from toxins, organic synthesis reactant libraries, and toxic ingestion symptoms.
Aliquots ranging from 10 to 30 [micro]L of the standard solutions of PSP toxins
, sample extracts, and blanks were injected into the HPLC system, and the resulting chromatographic peaks as shown in Figure 1 were integrated afterwards .
Shellfish contaminated with PSP toxins
can cause minor to severe illness or even death.
Under the regulations, the total concentration of PSP toxins
in the edible parts of the mollusc must not exceed 80 microgrammes per 100g of mollusc flesh.
Detection methods and their limitations: PSP toxins
in Florida puffer fish responsible for human poisoning events in 2004.
in Canada are produced by several species of dinoflagellates (Alexandrium spp.
The degradation process itself is not all good news either; the first step in the pathway turns the PSP toxins
into an even more potent form, before they are changed again and eventually reach a harmless state.
To ensure consumer protection and comply with European Regulations, monitoring of the phytoplankton in water and PSP toxins
(PST) in shellfish is a statutory requirement for European Union (EU) member states and for other non-EU countries wishing to export shellfish products to countries within the EU (Anon 2004).
There is, consequently, a significant risk to consumers of the snails, which can accumulate PSP toxins
after predation on the bivalves.
Paralytic shellfish poisoning: the relationship between Alexandrium abundance and PSP toxins
on Kodiak Island, Alaska.