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The proof of convergence of PPNG and PG law in three-dimensional space is very difficult and complex mainly due to the much higher complexity of the three-dimensional pursuit dynamics than that of two-dimensional dynamics.
The first term of the right-hand side of the above equation is due to pure proportional navigation guidance (PPNG) law and the second and third terms pursuit guidance (PG) law.
One hundred and forty-nine NG positives samples by PCR were used to determine the types of PPNG, TRNG, and CRNG
The relationship between different variables and TRNG, PPNG, and ciprofloxacin resistant NG was checked using Fisher exact test or chi-squared test when applicable.
found that persons with gonorrhea in Dade County, Florida, who had medicated themselves with illicit antibacterial drugs were more likely to be infected with PPNG than penicillin-sensitive strains (odds ratio 3.6; 95% CI 1.9-6.8) (25).
Spectinomycin resistance was observed to emerge rapidly among US service members stationed in South Korea after spectinomycin was adopted as the primary gonorrhea treatment by the US military (following the emergence of PPNG) (32).
The number of PPNG strains identified at the National Laboratory for STDs (data below provided by the Bureau of Microbiology, Health Canada) was 1 in 1976, and progressively increased to 58 in 1981, 215 in 1985, 624 in 1988 and 1,138 in 1990.
For instance, in Quebec, where contact tracing of STD cases is generally the responsibility of treating physicians, a more intensive public health-based contact tracing program has been implemented for cases of PPNG. It should also be noted that all strains of N.
gonorrhoeae were coinfected with Chlamydia trachornatis; 18 (46%) of 39 PPNG episodes and 64 (29%) of 222 nonresistant-gonorrhea episodes involved coinfection with C.
Through outreach efforts (including partner notification and referral), DISs identified 91 persons that represented 130 (33%) of the 390 sexually transmitted infections diagnosed (12 PPNG infections, 62 gonococcal infections, 55 genital chlamydial infections, and one syphilitic infection)(Figure 2); 21 of these infections were identified in other members in the sociosexual network.
Although the porB-PCR is not a definitive marker of CMRP (17), it was still able to provide insight into CMRP, given that the G101/A102 and PorB la markers are highly predictive of penicillin susceptibility (in which PPNG strains are simultaneously detected and excluded).
PPNG was first isolated in the United States in 1976.
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