PPARA

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PPARA

A gene on chromosome 22q12-q13.1 that encodes a ligand-activated transcription factor, which is a key regulator of lipid metabolism. PPARA is a receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidaemic
drugs and fatty acids, regulating the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids and acting as a transcription activator for ACOX1 and P450. PPARA is upregulated by heterodimerisation with RXRA and downregulated by heterodimerisation with NR2C2.
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Synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous (Ka) substitutions per site in the PPARS gene of various species Ks Ka Horse Human Chimpanzee Mouse Rat Horse -- 0.
The activation of multiple PPARs by LBE highlights the synergism and benefit of poly-targeted interventions that some phytomedicines can offer as opposed to to single targeted synthetic molecules.
Conjugated linoleic acid is a potent naturally occurring ligand and activator of PPAR alpha.
PPAR gamma is required for the differentiation of adipose tissue in vivo and in vitro.
PPAR[gamma] is a subtype belonging to the PPARS receptor family which play central roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in many different tissues (Aeberhard et al.
PPAR isoforms play a vital role particularly in the regulation of genes in fat and glucose metabolism.
The centrally acting drugs modulating the ACTH secretion and under investigation are: dopamine agonists, somatostatin analogues, cyproheptadine, ritanserine, sodium valproate and PPAR agonists.
The findings of the PPAR are based on: an OED mission to Jakarta in January 2004;1 review of project documents and files in Washington and Jakarta, including the Staff Appraisal Report, the Implementation Completion Report, and Project Status Reports; and interviews with Indonesian government officials in the planning agency (Bappenas) and the Ministry of Health, health researchers in Jakarta, World Bank staff in Jakarta and Washington, development partners, in Jakarta, Geneva (by telephone), Atlanta (by telephone) and Washington, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Jakarta.
Nearly all of the major pharmaceutical companies are developing PPAR agonists.
Perhaps the most intensely studied member of the PPAR family is PPAR-gamma, which regulates fat storage.