PPARA

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PPARA

A gene on chromosome 22q12-q13.1 that encodes a ligand-activated transcription factor, which is a key regulator of lipid metabolism. PPARA is a receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidaemic
drugs and fatty acids, regulating the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids and acting as a transcription activator for ACOX1 and P450. PPARA is upregulated by heterodimerisation with RXRA and downregulated by heterodimerisation with NR2C2.
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PPAR[gamma], peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; RXR, retinoid X receptor; PPRE, PPAR response element; HO-1, heme oxygenase 1; SOD, superoxide dismutase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase; CAT, catalase; CYP, cytochrome P-450; GSH, glutathione; GCEE, gamma- glutamylcysteine ethyl ester; NF-[kappa]B, nuclear factor-kappaB; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; COX-2, cyclooxygenase-2.
The activation of multiple PPARs by LBE highlights the synergism and benefit of poly-targeted interventions that some phytomedicines can offer as opposed to to single targeted synthetic molecules.
However this is not as good as TZD that enhanced the activity of PPAR[gamma]-dependent luciferase and improves glycaemic control in patient with Type 2 diabetes via improving insulin sensitivity through its action at PPAR gamma 1 and PPAR gamma 2(Smith, 2001).
Differential inhibition of macrophage foam-cell formation and atherosclerosis in mice by PPAR alfa, beta y gamma.
Given that pioglitazone, which also has a lipid-lowering effect, may become generic in 2011, new PPAR agonist drugs face substantial challenges unless their efficacy rivals that of current glitazones, and their safety and tolerance are superior, Dr.
Also, because several fatty acids and their derivatives are known ligands for PPARs, (13) we hypothesized that CLA isomers may act on lipid metabolizing genes through activation of PPAR[alpha] in the liver.
The PPAR thereby seeks to validate and augment the information provided in the ICR, as well as examine issues of special interest to broader OED studies.
This PPAR is one of six conducted on the "first generation" of the Bank's HIV/AIDS projects, as background for a larger OED evaluation of the development effectiveness of World Bank's assistance for fighting the AIDS epidemic.