PIP2


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PIP2

Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Aquaporins of the PIP2 class are required for efficient anther dehiscence in tobacco.
DAG Assays - Live cell assay produces a robust change in fluorescence that can be captured on a standard fluorescence plate reader or imaging system and can be multiplexed with other fluorescent sensors emitting longer wavelength light, such as the red-fluorescent PIP2 and cAMP sensors, or the calcium sensor R-GECO.
PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporins are differentially expressed during tobacco anther and stigma development.
The ligand-receptor complex is then internalized and degraded leading to (1) activation of phospholipase A2-release of arachidon- ic acid which via cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase activity leads to formation of prostaglandins and leu- cotriens; (2) activation of phospholipase-C through a G-protein with degradation of PIP2 and formation of IP3 and DAG; and (3) recruitment of substrate pro- teins to an oligomerized growth factor receptor with increased tyrosine kinase activity.26
A total of 263 unitags (91% of 289) were associated with aquaporin isoforms (189 unitags anchored in just a single EST from a unique database); 19 unitags (7%) were not isoform-specific but comprised the same subclass (PIP1 or PIP2) and only seven (2%) were not specific to any subclass.
The lipid phosphatase activity causes cell cycle arrest at the [G.sub.2]/S checkpoint and inhibits PI3 phosphorylation by dephosphorylating PIP3 back to PIP2. This decreases intracellular PtdIns levels and affects the downstream Akt signal transduction pathway.
The distinct transductional cascades regulated by CK receptors mainly depend on the G[alpha] subfamily which they activate: G[alpha]i inhibits AC but also activates tyrosine kinases of the Src family, favoring signal integration; G[alpha]q increases PLC[beta] activity [12], to cleave PIP2 to form DAG and IP3.
Also located at the C-terminus of TcpF, we found the motif KVRFKLKK similar to a functional motif in TcpB of Brucella, a PIP2 binding domain with the basic amino acid sequence KKRxxxxKK.
These events can lead to the activation of a number of downstream [82, 83] pathways including the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) phosphorylation, which are involved in the upregulation phosphorylation of the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate ([PIP.SUB.3]) by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K); the [PIP.sub.3] increment is followed by phosphoinositide dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) [84], serine/threonine kinasealso known as protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation that induces MEC proliferation, survival (antiapoptotic), and milk synthesis gene expression [83, 85-87].
This results in the activation of phospholipase C (PLC), which in turn leads to the formation of the inositol triphosphate (IP3) through the hydrolyzation of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2).