PEEP


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Related to PEEP: Positive end expiratory pressure

pressure

 (P) [presh´ur]
force per unit area.
arterial pressure (arterial blood pressure) blood pressure (def. 2).
atmospheric pressure the pressure exerted by the atmosphere, usually considered as the downward pressure of air onto a unit of area of the earth's surface; the unit of pressure at sea level is one atmosphere. Pressure decreases with increasing altitude.
barometric pressure atmospheric p.
blood pressure
2. pressure of blood on walls of any blood vessel.
capillary pressure the blood pressure in the capillaries.
central venous pressure see central venous pressure.
cerebral perfusion pressure the mean arterial pressure minus the intracranial pressure; a measure of the adequacy of cerebral blood flow.
cerebrospinal pressure the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid, normally 100 to 150 mm Hg.
continuous positive airway pressure see continuous positive airway pressure.
filling pressure see mean circulatory filling pressure.
high blood pressure hypertension.
intracranial pressure see intracranial pressure.
intraocular pressure the pressure exerted against the outer coats by the contents of the eyeball.
intrapleural pressure (intrathoracic pressure) pleural pressure.
intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure elevated positive end-expiratory pressure and dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation caused by insufficient expiratory time or a limitation on expiratory flow. It cannot be routinely measured by a ventilator's pressure monitoring system but is measurable only using an expiratory hold maneuver done by the clinician. Its presence increases the work needed to trigger the ventilator, causes errors in the calculation of pulmonary compliance, may cause hemodynamic compromise, and complicates interpretation of hemodynamic measurements. Called also auto-PEEP and intrinsic PEEP.
maximal expiratory pressure maximum expiratory pressure.
maximal inspiratory pressure the pressure during inhalation against a completely occluded airway; used to evaluate inspiratory respiratory muscle strength and readiness for weaning from mechanical ventilation. A maximum inspiratory pressure above −25 cm H2O is associated with successful weaning.
maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) a measure of the strength of respiratory muscles, obtained by having the patient exhale as strongly as possible against a mouthpiece; the maximum value is near total lung capacity.
maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) the inspiratory pressure generated against a completely occluded airway; used to evaluate inspiratory respiratory muscle strength and readiness for weaning from mechanical ventilation. A maximum inspiratory pressure above −25 cm H2O is associated with successful weaning.
mean airway pressure the average pressure generated during the respiratory cycle.
mean circulatory filling pressure a measure of the average (arterial and venous) pressure necessary to cause filling of the circulation with blood; it varies with blood volume and is directly proportional to the rate of venous return and thus to cardiac output.
negative pressure pressure less than that of the atmosphere.
oncotic pressure the osmotic pressure of a colloid in solution.
osmotic pressure the pressure required to stop osmosis through a semipermeable membrane between a solution and pure solvent; it is proportional to the osmolality of the solution. Symbol π.
partial pressure the pressure exerted by each of the constituents of a mixture of gases.
peak pressure in mechanical ventilation, the highest pressure that occurs during inhalation.
plateau pressure in mechanical ventilation, the pressure measured at the proximal airway during an end-inspiratory pause; a reflection of alveolar pressure.
pleural pressure the pressure between the visceral pleura and the thoracic pleura in the pleural cavity. Called also intrapleural or intrathoracic pressure.
positive pressure pressure greater than that of the atmosphere.
positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) a method of control mode ventilation in which positive pressure is maintained during expiration to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange. A PEEP higher than the critical closing pressure prevents alveolar collapse and can markedly improve the arterial Po2 in patients with a lowered functional residual capacity, as in acute respiratory failure.
Effects of the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the alveoli. A, Atelectatic alveoli before PEEP application. B, Optimal PEEP application has reinflated alveoli to normal volume. C, Excessive PEEP application overdistends the alveoli and compresses adjacent pulmonary capillaries, creating dead space with its attendant hypercapnia. From Pierce, 1995.
pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)) intravascular pressure, reflecting the left ventricular end diastolic pressure, measured by a swan-ganz catheter wedged into a small pulmonary artery to block the flow from behind.
pulse pressure the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures. If the systolic pressure is 120 mm Hg and the diastolic pressure is 80 mm Hg, the pulse pressure is 40 mm Hg; the normal pulse pressure is between 30 and 40 mm Hg.
urethral pressure the pressure inwards exerted by the walls of the urethra, which must be counteracted in order for urine to flow through; see also urethral pressure profile.
venous pressure the blood pressure in the veins; see also central venous pressure.
water vapor pressure the tension exerted by water vapor molecules, 47 mm Hg at normal body temperature.
wedge pressure blood pressure measured by a small catheter wedged into a vessel, occluding it; see also pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and wedged hepatic vein pressure.
wedged hepatic vein pressure the venous pressure measured with a catheter wedged into the hepatic vein. The difference between wedged and free hepatic vein pressures is used to locate the site of obstruction in portal hypertension; it is elevated in that due to cirrhosis, but low in cardiac ascites or portal vein thrombosis.

PEEP

(pēp),

PEEP

positive end-expiratory pressure; see under pressure.

PEEP

PEEP

Positive end-expiratory pressure A therapeutic modality consisting in the active–interventional maintenance of a slightly positive pressure in the tracheobronchial tree during assisted pulmonary ventilation, such that alveoli are not allowed to completely collapse between breaths; PEEP is of greatest use in ARDS and generated by attaching an airflow threshold resistance device to the expiratory port of the non-rebreathing valve of a manual or mechanical ventilator, allowing a ↓ of airway pressure to a plateau level Conventional PEEP Pressure is maintained at 5-20 cm H2O; it is indicated where an inhaled oxygen fraction at 0.6 cannot maintain the PaO2 above 60 Torr High PEEP Pressure is maintained at 20-50 cm H2O; it is used for marked hypoxia, as may occur in severe pulmonary edema

PEEP

Abbreviation for positive end-expiratory pressure.

PEEP

Abbrev. for positive end-expiratory pressure. This is a method of mechanical ventilation, for people with respiratory failure or adult RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, used to try to maintain adequate oxygenation of the blood.

PEEP

positive-end-expiratory pressure.
References in periodicals archive ?
Another point of investigative interest concerns the use of applied PEEP in passively ventilated patients with airflow obstruction.
Potential licensees in the digital camera accessories industry are currently being targeted as candidates to eventually commercialize the Peep Sight on a worldwide basis.
Also, if you should slip up in your routine and draw back on an animal only to realize that your peep has rotated slightly, a larger aperture might still allow you to aim correctly and execute the shot.
No glaze should be on the part of the peep that inserts into the kiln's peephole.
Although increased extravascular lung water (EVLW) has been reported to play a crucial role in the development of alveolar atelectasis (5), the effect of PEEP on EVLW remains controversial.
Little Peeps, big Peeps, yellow Peeps, pink Peeps, conjoined Peeps - hey, it's just fun to say Peeps
So Peep was a very logical character to have for this kind of animation.
This problem is solved by a peep with a surgical-tubing umbilical.
Part of the problem was that everyone's draw length and anchor points were different, so the peep hole needed to be a different size for each person.
But if you hunt in a sunny place like here in Arizona, there really isn't a good reason to use such a large peep.
HUNTING IN STEEP COUNTRY or in thick brush, I find that my most common equipment problem is a peep sight that has been pulled up or down the string.
Designed to eliminate a string-mounted peep sight, the Lil Bow Peep movable archery sight includes an adjustable, bow-mounted rear peep connected to a single-pin sighting system and is made to improve overall accuracy and help eliminate bow torque.