HMGB1-RAGE signaling increases the levels of profibrotic cytokines, such as TGF-[beta]1, and PDGF
, in the lungs .
We studied several growth factors expression in cutaneous and oral mucosa humans scars: TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2, TGFbeta 3, TNFalpha, PDGF
BB, and FGF1.
Our results indicate that inhibiting CF blocked EMT by simultaneously suppressing TGF-[sz] and PDGF
[126.] RL Brown, MP Breeden, DG Greenhalgh, PDGF
and TGF-alpha act synergistically to improve wound-healing in the genetically diabetic mouse, J Surg Res, 56, 562-570, (1994).
, firstly described by Ross in 1974, is produced by giant cells and stimulates angiogenesis, osteoblastic proliferation, differentiation, and mesenchymal cell division.
TNF-[alpha], IFN-[gamma], PDGF
, and VEGF protein levels were measured in the protein extracts using an ELISA kit (Senxiong Biotech, Shanghai, China) according to the manufacturer's instructions.
The authors used combination of PDGF
gel with bone grafts in the reconstructive osseous surgeries and observed significant bone regeneration and increased bone density and maturation rates in 40 osseous defects .
Primer sequences used were the following: [beta]-actin, forward 5-CCT CTA TGC CAA CAC AGT 3' and reverse 5-AGC CAC CAA TCC ACA CAG 3; CYLD, forward 5-AAT GTG TCC CTG CCC TAC CTA 3' and reverse 5-CTC GTC CCT ACT CTG CCA CTT 3'; PEDF, forward 5-GAG GAC AGG ACC GTG AGA GT 3' and reverse 5'-GGG CAG GAA GAA GAT GAT G 3;VEGF, forward 5-GCA AGA GAA GAC ACG GTG GT 3' and reverse 5'-CAG GAG GTG GGG TAA GGA G 3; PDGF
, forward 5-CAG TGT CCG TTT GTT CAG TG 3' and reverse 5'-TGG TTT TGT TTT CGC TCT CT 3; and angiostatin, forward 5-CCT TGG TGC TAC ACT ACA GA 3 and reverse 5'-GGA GAT TTT GCC CTC ATA C 3'.
There are many proteins that act as mitogens, but PDGF
is believed to have an important role in stimulating cell division during wound healing .
Platelets retain numerous growth factors such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF
), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-[beta]), insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF I and IGF II), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) [4, 5].
These cells immediately begin to produce proinflammatory cytokines, particularly transforming-growth-factor-beta-1 (TGF-[beta]1); platelets, too, along with the macrophages already present in the area after the posttraumatic extravasation, release TGF-[beta]1 cytokines and platelet-derived-growth-factor (PDGF
) [17, 21].
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF
) (Shreiber et al., 2001; Heldin and Westermark, 1999; Chen et al., 2015; Seppa et al., 1982), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) (Boilly et al., 2000; Grant et al., 1992) as well as transforming growth factor [beta]1 (TGF-[beta]1) (Grant et al., 1992) are prominent chemokines secreted by macrophages, inducing chemotactic migration of fibroblasts.