None of the identified DMCs at the other top imprinted genes--growth factor receptor bound protein 10 (Grb10), pleiomorphic adenoma gene-like 1 (Plagll), phosphodiesterase 10A (Pde10a), Klf14, and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (Snrpn)--fell in known murine ICRs.
Five of these 12 genes had increased 5-hmC peaks by BPA exposure--Grb10, Pde10a, phosphodiesterase 4D (Pde4d), Plagl1, and Gnas.
The third additional hyper-hydroxymethylated imprinted gene, Pde10a, encodes phosphodiesterase 10A (Pde10a).
Isolation and characterization of a dual-substrate phosphodiesterase gene family: PDE10A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(12):7071-7076, PMID: 10359840.
5-hmC coverage was visualized at six imprinted loci with significant BPA-related DHMRs: (A) Gnas; (B) Grb10; (C) Plaglt; (D) Klf14; (E) Pde10a; and (F) Snrpn.
After sequencing the genomes of a few dozen Bajau and Saluan, the researchers found that the Bajau had much higher frequency of a variant of specific gene, called the PDE10A
, associated with spleen size.
We also assessed the expression of PDE1 (isoforms PDE1A, 1B and 1C), and PDE10A
, which hydrolyze both cAMP and cGMP, as well as the cAMP-specific PDE7 enzyme isoforms, PDE7A, and PDE7B, whose presence in the brain is well documented [34-36].