The pre-deigned questionnaire included items on women's socio-demographic data (age, educational status, marital status, familial income level), their knowledge of Pap
smear (whether they had previously heard of Pap
smear testing, whether they knew who should take this test, for which conditions it was performed and how frequently) and their knowledge about cervical cancer (whether they had previously heard of cervical cancer, what its signs were, whether the individual women considered that she was at risk).
High educational level was found to have a significant impact in knowledge of the usefulness of the Pap
smear when high and low education levels were compared.
A group of midwifery students (n=5) studying at the Health Services Vocational Midwifery College of Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey were informed of the particular aims of the study, the method for completing the questionnaires, and also information about pap
smear test and knowledge level of pap
All these are good, relevant, and well-meaning objectives--and pragmatic consensus is that an institution such as the PAP
should be at the core of driving this agenda.
For women who tested HPV positive, there were an additional 6 per 100 women who were found to have cervical cancer or precancer if they had a positive Pap
It picks up more false-positives than a Pap
smear, which leads to more "callbacks," particularly women under the age of 30.
The researchers acknowledge a number of study limitations, among them the use of a convenience sample of women in only 18 states, the lack of information about whether women had been offered a Pap
test during the previous year, the facility-based recruitment strategy and the use of self-reported data on Pap
Among the women interviewed, 556 (23%) had not had a Pap
test in the year before the interview.
But here's why the annual Pap
smear should bite the dust.
smears for women younger than 30 years old.
18 New England Journal of Medicine, researchers report that HPV tests caught many more cases of cervical cancer than Pap
In the older Pap
test, the cells were smeared onto a slide, which often distorted their shape, sometimes leading to inaccurate diagnoses.