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The settling tests of all grades of PAMs were carried out in 1 wt% kaolin suspension at neutral pH.
Environmental toxicity is a concern when using PAMs to ameliorate soils and clarify surface water bodies.
The molecular properties of PAM (molecular weight (MW) and molecular charge density) may interact in affecting the PAM's efficacy in flocculating soil clay, stabilising soil aggregates, diminishing seal formation, and resisting erosion (Green et al.
The dry granular PAM was dissolved in distilled water in the laboratory under constant stirring.
The final test used PAM products because of its binding properties.
Pam Ayre, now 63, lived in Port Clarence with her family where mum Mary (nee Fishburn) ran the family business, Port Clarence's post office.
Though this past summer was only the third during which Sojka's group has tested PAMs, word of the polymer's promise has gotten out.
About 400 000 ha of agricultural land is treated each year with PAM in the USA (Sojka and Surapaneni 2000).
Methods for PAM quantification in soil waters should be unaffected by or should tolerate these possible interferences.
PAM is most commonly applied to irrigated furrows via two methods; either by dissolving PAM in irrigation water before it enters the furrow, or by placing a small patch of powder directly on the ground in the first 1 to 2 meters (3 to 6 feet) of the furrow before introducing the water.
The fundamental aspects and history of polyacrylamide (PAM) use in irrigation water have been covered in several publications (Wallace and Wallace 1986a and b; Lentz et al.