cytochrome P450

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CYP11A1

A gene on chromosome 15q23-q24 that encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes, which catalyse reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. CYP11A1 localises to the mitochondrial inner membrane and catalyses the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of the steroid hormones.

cytochrome P450

Abbreviation: CYP
A group of enzymes present in every type of cell in the body except red blood cells and skeletal muscle cells. They are important in metabolizing substances normally present in the body such as steroids, fat-soluble vitamins, fatty acids, prostaglandins, and alkaloids. The P450 enzymes also detoxify drugs and a great number of environmental pollutants, such as carcinogens present in tobacco smoke and charcoal-broiled meat, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxin. Specialized types of cytochrome P450 are involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide.
See also: cytochrome

cytochrome P450

A family of enzymes responsible for the detoxification and elimination of foreign substances including many drugs by hydroxylation and increasing their solubility. The group has been intensively studied because mutations of the cytochrome P450 gene have been found to be associated with a number of diseases including Addison's disease, liver cancer and Parkinson's disease. Cytochrome P450 can also interfere with drug treatment. Selective inhibitors of aromatase-specific cytochrome P450 have been developed to assist in the treatment of breast cancer.

cytochrome P450

hepatic microsome responsible for biotransformation of local anaesthetic agents into simpler chemical compounds
References in periodicals archive ?
WARNING: ADDICTION, ABUSE AND MISUSE; LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; ACCIDENTAL INGESTION; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; and CYTOCHROME P450 3A4 INTERACTION
Host plant species can passively affect the biochemistry of arthropods and one of the most important effects is on the detoxification enzymes involved in insecticide metabolism, including general esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (e.
com)-- AAXA Technologies, a leader in Pico and Micro projectors announces the release of the AAXA P450 - a 450 lumen High-Definition (HD) pico projector based on AAXA's popular P300 platform.
Studying the ways in which the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes processes valproic acid, the Johns Hopkins biochemists found that it can activate the protein AMPK, which was already known to be a good drug target for treating metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes and obesity, Daily Science reported.
The new work reveals that two members of the P450 gene superfamily in particular are highly expressed in resistant Tiassale mosquitoes: CYP6M2 and CYP6P3.
Clarithromycin and erythromycin inhibit the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme that metabolises atorvastatin, simvastatin, and lovastatin.
LAS VEGAS--Cytochrome P450 polymorphism tests aren't ready for prime time, according to Dr.
Methods: For this purpose hepatocyte viability, inhibition of cytochromes P450, and induction of cytochromes P450 was evaluated.
Michael Green, an associate professor of chemistry at Penn State University and lead author of the study, explained that scientists have speculated for decades that, during the process of metabolizing chemicals in the human liver, enzymes in the family named P450 pass through a critical chemical phase-change called "Compound I," whereby an oxygen molecule is temporarily added.
In fact, [PGPs] can 'set up' or act as 'gatekeepers' for later P450 cytochrome actions," according to Jessica R.
Scientists from the Leicester School of Pharmacy found human cancer cells, which contain the enzyme P450 CYP1B1, were destroyed by a compound called Salvestrol Q40.
CAMBRIDGE, April 24 /PRNewswire/ -- Astex Therapeutics today announced that it has granted a non-exclusive, worldwide license to its cytochrome P450 intellectual property to GlaxoSmithKline.