HEK-293 cells are known to abundantly express a diverse repertoire of receptors such as [beta]2-adrenergic, muscarinic acetylcholine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, P2Y1 and P2Y2
, corticotropin-releasing factor type 1, and somatostatin- and thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors, and citalopram has been shown to interact strongly with some of these receptors, in the concentration range used in this study, so it may well be eliciting epigenetic effects through these pathways.
Offermanns, "Platelet-derived nucleotides promote tumor-cell transendothelial migration and metastasis via p2y2
receptor," Cancer Cell, vol.
Inoue, "Ca2+ waves in keratinocytes are transmitted to sensory neurons: the involvement of extracellular ATP and P2Y2
receptor activation," The Biochemical Journal, vol.
Cunha, "Dual presynaptic control by ATP of glutamate release via facilitatory P2X1, P2X2/3, and P2X3 and inhibitory P2Y1, P2Y2
, and/or P2Y4 receptors in the rat hippocampus," The Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
In this context, purinergic P2 and P1 receptors confer some of the KCNQ1 channel volume sensitivity in oocytes, although endogenous adenosine receptors and expressed P2Y2
receptors do so in the negative direction, as responses to cell volume changes .
Nakata, "Immunogold electron microscopic evidence of in situ formation of homo- and heteromeric purinergic adenosine A1 and P2Y2
receptors in rat brain," BMC Research Notes, vol.
ATP release guides neutrophil chemotaxis via P2Y2
and A3 receptors.
(35) DQS stimulates mucin and tear fluid production by acting as a P2Y2
Inoue et al., "ATP release guides neutrophil chemotaxis via P2Y2
and A3 receptors," Science, vol.
Caciagli et al., "P2Y2
receptor up-regulation induced by guanosine or UTP in rat brain cultured astrocytes," International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, vol.
Eight subtypes of P2Y have been identified to date--P2Y1, P2Y2
, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y11, P2Y12, P2Y13, and P2Y14--with differences in both pharmacology and downstream signalling pathways [3, 4].
(2008), demonstrated that P2Y2
and P2Y11 receptors were expressed in near-IR light irradiated normal human neural progenitor cells in vitro (33).