Ferulic acid (FA) has recently been shown to scavenge oxygen free radicals
and increase the intracellular cAMP and cGMP and hence improve sperm motility in a study done by Zheng et al.5 Since FA is an active ingredient of Ajwa dates (Phoenix dactyl L), we recommend its use in the treatment of male infertility.
The proposed mechanism for oxygen free radical
generation at higher glucose concentration in pregnancy includes non-enzymatic protein glycation, which may induce production of oxygen free radicals
,  increased mitochondrial electron transport chain flow, and oxidative activities of the fetus.
Oxygen free radicals
are very reactive molecules which can react with every cellular component.
Oxygen metabolism in living cells and many factors such as environmental pollutants, radiation and pesticides inevitably lead to the formation of oxygen free radicals
. The main ones of these radicals are single oxygen, superoxide anion, hydroxy, peroxy and alkoxy radicals.
The damage by oxygen free radicals
is known as oxidative stress.
However, the metabolic process also creates dangerous byproducts known as oxygen free radicals
The pathophysiology of mucositis is associated with DNA damage by production of oxygen free radicals
, pro-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial colonisation.
Oxygen free radicals
impair both the cellular membrane and intracellular structures.
Previous studies reported that oxidative stress parameters (such as ROS and lipid peroxidation) are significantly increased and antioxidant concentrations significantly decreased in varicocele patients and the infertility caused by varicocele is at least partly related to oxygen free radicals
(Sharma & Agarwal, 1996), all these studies are all corroborated by our findings that varicocele induction causes a decrease in the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes.
Popular antioxidants like Vitamin C, E and COQ10 only protect against "oxygen free radicals
," primarily from the sun.
The levels of inflammatory molecules, oxygen free radicals
and expression of genes which are among the makers of cellular ageing dropped to the level that would be expected in younger cells.