mineral

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mineral

 [min´er-al]
any naturally occurring nonorganic homogeneous solid substance. There are 19 or more that form the mineral composition of the body; at least 13 are essential to health. These must be supplied in the diet and generally can be supplied by a varied or mixed diet of animal and vegetable products that meet energy and protein needs. For the recommended dietary allowances of common minerals in the United States and Canada, see Appendices 4 and 5. Calcium, iron, and iodine are the ones most frequently missing in the diet. Zinc, copper, magnesium, and potassium are minerals that are frequently involved in disturbances of metabolism. Other essential minerals include selenium, phosphorus, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum. Minerals are either electropositive or electronegative; combinations of electropositive and electronegative elements lead to the formation of salts such as sodium chloride and calcium phosphate.
mineral oil a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons from petroleum, available in both light grade (light liquid petrolatum) and heavier grades (liquid or heavy liquid petrolatum). Light mineral oil is used chiefly as a vehicle for drugs, but it may also be used as a cathartic and skin emollient and cleansing agent. Heavy mineral oil is used as a cathartic, solvent, and oleaginous vehicle. Prolonged use of mineral oil as a cathartic should be avoided because it prevents absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins. Lipid pneumonia caused by aspiration of the oil has been shown to occur in those who habitually take it, especially the elderly.

min·er·al

(min'ĕr-ăl),
Any homogeneous inorganic material usually found in the earth's crust.
[L. mineralis, pertaining to mines, fr. mino, to mine]

mineral

(mĭn′ər-əl)
n.
An inorganic element, such as calcium, iron, potassium, sodium, or zinc, that is essential to the nutrition of humans, animals, and plants.

mineral

Those metallic elements that are required for optimal functioning of the body. Dietary requirements for minerals range from molar to trace amounts/day; some (e.g., nickel, tin and vanadium) may be required by some plants or animals, but are not known to have a role in human nutrition.

Dietary minerals
Major—Bone: Calcium, phosphate, magnesium. 
Major—Electrolytes: Sodium, potassium, chloride. 
Minor—Metalloproteins: Iron, copper, manganese, iodine, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, fluoride, zinc. 
Trace: Nickel, silicon, vanadium, tin.

Mineral recommended daily allowances/values, sources and benefits
[▪ Mineral—RDA/DV: Food sources; Benefit.]
▪ Calcium—0.8 g/1.0g: Almonds, broccoli, dairy products, fish, fortified orange juice, turnip greens; Bone and teeth growth and 
maintenance, neuromuscular function, blood clotting.
▪ Chloride—750 mcg/none: Salt, salty foods; Electrolyte and fluid balance.
▪ Chromium—50–200 mcg/none: Black pepper, broccoli, brewers’ yeast, brown sugar, dairy products, grape juice, molasses, whole grains; Carbohydrate metabolism.
▪ Copper—1.5–3.0 mg/2.0 mg: Cherries, cocoa, eggs, fish, gelatin, mushrooms, legumes, shellfish, whole-grain cereals; Blood cells, connective tissue. 
▪ Fluoride—1.5–4.0 mg/none: Fish, fluoridated water, tea; Strengthens tooth enamel.
▪ Iodine—150 mcg/150 mcg: Iodised salt, milk, shellfish, spinach; Maintains thyroid metabolism.
▪ Iron—10 mg/20 mg: Asparagus, clams, meats, poultry prunes, pumpkin seeds, raisins, soybeans, spinach; Oxygen transportation in red blood cells, metabolism.
▪ Magnesium—350 mg/400 mg: Bananas, broccoli, dairy products, molasses, nuts, pumpkin seeds, seafood, spinach, wheat germ; Neuromuscular activity, bones. 
▪ Manganese—2–5 mg/none: Dairy products, dried fruits, leafy green vegetables, legumes, nuts, tea, whole-grain cereals; Carbohydrate, fat, bone and connective tissue metabolism.
▪ Molybdenum—75–250 µg/none: Breads, cereals, dairy products, legumes, meats, whole grain cereals; Nitrogen metabolism. 
▪ Phosphorus—0.8 g/1.0 g: Cereals, dairy products, eggs, fish, meats, poultry; Energy metabolism, co-acts with calcium to maintain bones.
▪ Potassium—2000 mg/3500 mg: Avocados, bananas, cantaloupe, dairy products, dried fruits, mushrooms, tomatoes; Maintains pH in blood, co-acts with sodium to maintain fluid balance.
▪ Selenium—70 mcg/none: Brazil nuts, dairy products, fish, eats, mushrooms, shellfish, whole-grain cereals; Co-acts with vitamin E as an antioxidant. 
▪ Sodium—500 mg/2400 mg: Salt, salty foods, soy sauce; Nervous system function, co-acts with chloride to maintain fluid balance.
▪ Zinc—15 mg/15 mg: Dairy products, fish, lean beef, legumes, lima beans, nuts, oysters, poultry, wheat germ; Wound healing, sperm production, many enzyme reactions.

mineral

Nutrition A popular term for a nonvitamin nutrient needed to maintain health
Dietary minerals
Major minerals–in bone Calcium, phosphate, magnesium
Major minerals–in electrolytes Sodium, potassium, chloride
Minor minerals–in metalloproteins Iron, copper, manganese, iodine, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, fluoride, zinc
Trace minerals Nickel, silicon, vanadium, tin

min·er·al

(min'ĕr-ăl)
Any homogeneous inorganic material usually found in the earth's crust.
[L. mineralis, pertaining to mines, fr. mino, to mine]

Mineral

A substance that does not contain carbon (inorganic) and is widely distributed in nature. Minerals play an important role in human metabolism.
Mentioned in: Hypercalcemia
References in periodicals archive ?
By comparing the minerals formed under these three different conditions, I hope to determine exactly how bacteria contribute to the oxidation of manganese and the precipitation of manganese oxide minerals.
(2007) proposed that supergene copper oxide minerals were later replaced by atacamite following the onset of hyperarid climatic conditions.
The oxide minerals such as senarmontite, valentinite, kermesite and stibiconite, if present, directly react with HCl without requiring FeCl3 during leaching process.
In Earth's geological record, the appearance of high concentrations of manganese oxide minerals is an important marker of a major shift in our atmosphere's composition, from relatively low oxygen abundances to the oxygen-rich atmosphere we see today.
The quartz is hosted by a vein-related shear zone and is associated with sulphide, sulphosalt, carbonate and manganese oxide minerals. Preliminary data suggest that the shear-zone-related deformation in the deposit, along with the circulation of hydrothermal fluids and reprecipitation of silica due to pressure dissolution mechanisms, led to the generation of green quartz from the deformation and dissolution of previous smoky quartz.
Scientists have been familiar with microbes, called exoelectrogenic, that live in airless environments and can 'breath' oxide minerals, instead of oxygen, to generate energy.
Manganese oxides are mainly constituted by [Mn[O.sub.6]] octahedra with (1 x n) pyrolusite pore structure in ramsdellite family, barium and manganese ore (2 x n) pore structure in psilomelane family, barium, calcium, and manganese family (3 x n) pore structure, and (1 x [infinity]) layered structure manganese oxide minerals [12, 13].
Scientists have long known of the existence of what they call exoelectrogenic microbes, organisms that evolved in airless environments and developed the ability to react with oxide minerals rather than breathe oxygen as we do to convert organic nutrients into biological fuel.
The water contains carbonate of calcium, calcium oxide minerals, silicone acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid.
The NaOH treatment was significantly effective in eliminating the phyllosilicates and concentrating the iron oxide minerals peloids.
Large quantities of oxide minerals in rocks worldwide indicate that the atmosphere had at least small amounts of oxygen by 2.2 billion years ago (SN: 1/24/04, p.
It was historically used as an ore of aluminum and later in the electrolytic processing of the aluminum rich oxide ore bauxite (itself a combination of aluminum oxide minerals such as gibbsite, boehmite and diaspore).