methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

(redirected from Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

A bacterium with multiple antibiotic resistances: e.g., aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, rifampin, tetracycline, streptomycin, cephalosporin. Some strains of MRSA have reduced sensitivity to antiseptics.

Treatment
Vancomycin.

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Methicillin-aminoglycoside resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA An organism with multiple antibiotic resistances–eg, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, rifampin, tetracycline, streptomycin, cephalosporin; some strains of MRSA have ↓ sensitivity to antiseptics Treatment Vancomycin. See Antibiotic resistance.

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Abbreviation: MRSA
A strain of S. aureus resistant to methicillin. MRSA is resistant to all penicillins. Patients with MRSA infections should be isolated; appropriate mask-gown-glove precautions must be used, depending on the site of the infection. MRSA is an important cause of health care associated infections. Handwashing is essential in caring for patients who harbor this organism. See: isolation; resistance, antibiotic

MRSA is resistant to most antibiotics and is usually acquired in hospitals or nursing homes, spread from patient to patient by contaminated hands, clothing, and equipment. Infection with MRSA can range from pneumonia to flesh-eating diseases. About 0.5% of people in the U.S. have MRSA bacteria on their skin or in their noses and, although not infected, can still spread the bacteria to those at risk. The CDC estimates that 90,000 people die annually in the U.S. from hospital-acquired infections; about 17,000 of these deaths are due to MRSA. Agencies can now reduce and perhaps stop the spread of MRSA infection by following the guidelines of a pilot program of the Pittsburgh, PA, Veterans Affairs Healthcare System.

Patient care

The Pittsburgh guidelines require that all patients have their noses swabbed for MRSA on admission and discharge. Those with MRSA are isolated from other patients and are cared for in protective isolation. Noninvasive equipment is disinfected after each use with these patients, and strict hand hygiene policies are applied. As a result, there was a drop of more than 70% of MRSA cases in surgical care units. The VA, because of the Pittsburgh results, plans to expand the program to more than 150+ VA hospitals nationwide. The CDC suggests screening high-risk patients (those with weak immune systems, intensive care patients, and patients in nursing homes), rather than recommending universal screening. However, Denmark, Finland, and the Netherlands have essentially eradicated MRSA by using universal screening methods. In addition to screening everyone, agencies may provide MRSA carriers with special soap and antibiotic nasal creams. Additionally, a gene-based MRSA test provides results in hours as opposed to days.

See also: Staphylococcus
References in periodicals archive ?
Failure of cloxacillin in treatment of a patient with borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.
Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the United States: establishing a national database, J Clin Microbiol.
High prevalence of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospitalized patients in Asia-Pacific and South Africa: results from SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program, 1998-1999.
Role of Penicillin-Binding Protein 4 in Expression of Vancomycin Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Oxacillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
A closely related antimicrobial, oxacillin, has replaced methicillin in actual resistance testing, so MRSA may also be referred to as oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) in some sources, especially in articles not written in the U.
Community-acquired, non-multiresistant oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (NORSA) in South Western Sydney.
Cultures were consistent with oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, requiring 2 weeks of vancomycin.
It is also called oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) (1) A population-based study of the incidence of MRSA infections in San Francisco during 2004-05 demonstrated that nearly 1 in 300 residents suffered from such an infection in the course of a year and that greater than 85% of these infections occurred outside of the healthcare setting (2) In a meta-analysis of 31 studies, Cosgrove et al.
Analysis of borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) strains isolated in Tunisia.
1) The first reported cases in Brazil, were in the Hospital das Clinicas of University of Sao Paulo, involving bloodstream infections caused by non-multiresistant oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, SCCmec IV.
Molecular epidemiology of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Brooklyn, New York.
However, when a more conservative test that accounts for changes within individual hospitals was used, significant increases in prevalence of resistance were consistently observed only for oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ciprofloxacin- or ofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli.