The computation of the out-crossing
rate has been extensively studied [8, 9, 10, 11], under the assumption of the out-crossings
being independent and Poisson distributed.
(2003) showed up to 95 % out-crossing
rate in maize in GM and conventional crops.
Backers who get maker kits will be told that releasing any of their plants or seeds is illegal because Agrobacterium could still be present and could spread to out-crossing
Single-locus ([[??].sub.s]) and multilocus [[??].sub.m] out-crossing
rates, AFLP marker-allele frequencies, observed heterozygote frequencies, ovule and pollen frequencies and the coefficient of parental inbreeding ([??]) were estimated with the mixed-mating model (mixed outcrossing and selfing) using the software MLTR (Ritland 2002).
methods require the calculation of the crossing rate of the likelihood that the performance falls into the failure domain.
2006) Thus, out-crossing
among genetically distinct strains may lead to marked improvement in performance as has been demonstrated in other bivalve species (Hedgecock et al.
Isolation distances for minimizing out-crossing
in spring wheat.
Do existing testing safeguards adequately address the problem of out-crossing
of genetically engineered creeping bentgrass pollen?
There is also the risk of contaminating local seed, or out-crossing
as it is called in scientific circles.
In the field, the actual cross-hybridization rate is a function of distance, with percent out-crossing
diminishing the farther the recipient is from the pollen source.
Since I'm still fairly new at raising chickens, I've been reading everything I can find, but I get bogged down when the books start talking about line breeding, cross-breeding, in-breeding and out-crossing
. I think I have a handle on the basic principles, but do I have to get that precise?
Putative light-blue [F.sub.1] seeds were sown in the greenhouse and resulting plants were selfed and grown to maturity to confirm the light-blue [F.sub.1] seed was the result of an out-crossing