outcrossing

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outcrossing

breeding with individuals other than close relatives.
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The computation of the out-crossing rate has been extensively studied [8, 9, 10, 11], under the assumption of the out-crossings being independent and Poisson distributed.
2003) showed up to 95 % out-crossing rate in maize in GM and conventional crops.
Backers who get maker kits will be told that releasing any of their plants or seeds is illegal because Agrobacterium could still be present and could spread to out-crossing plants.
m] out-crossing rates, AFLP marker-allele frequencies, observed heterozygote frequencies, ovule and pollen frequencies and the coefficient of parental inbreeding ([?
2006) Thus, out-crossing among genetically distinct strains may lead to marked improvement in performance as has been demonstrated in other bivalve species (Hedgecock et al.
Isolation distances for minimizing out-crossing in spring wheat.
In the field, the actual cross-hybridization rate is a function of distance, with percent out-crossing diminishing the farther the recipient is from the pollen source.
Since I'm still fairly new at raising chickens, I've been reading everything I can find, but I get bogged down when the books start talking about line breeding, cross-breeding, in-breeding and out-crossing.
Out-crossing rates were calculated for each cultivar as follows: OC (%) = 100(total number of confirmed light-blue seeds observed/total number of seeds collected) where confirmed light-blue seeds included only light-blue [F.
Hardinggrass is an out-crossing species; thus, determination of genetic diversity is complicated by the fact that genetic variation exists among as well as within populations (cultivars or accessions).
Little bluestem is a native, warm-season, highly out-crossing, tetraploid, perennial bunchgrass (Archer and Bunch, 1953; Gould, 1956) that inhabits a wide ecological range in North America where it is used for reclamation and ground cover (Hitchcock, 1950).
Out-crossing in maize varieties is prevented either by time isolation (temporal) or distance isolation (spatial).