The four essential properties in bone reconstruction--osteoconduction, osteoinduction
, osteogenesis and osteopromotion (Ripamonti et al., 2001) are related to autogenous grafts, the gold standard in reconstruction.
This hydrogel-based bioactive system could mimic the effect of red bone marrow in the marrow cavity of cancellous bone, thus endowing the artificial bone with spatial and all-dimensional angioinduction and osteoinduction
(3) Bioactive ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA) are helpful in the restoration of the bone with satisfying osteoinduction
, osteocompatibility, and osteoconduction properties (34) without triggering a considerable immune response.
If, in fact, cells within the autograft provide both osteogenesis and osteoinduction
, then maybe using higher concentrations of osteogenic cells may result in better fracture union than autograft itself.
MG63 cells were seeded on 24-well plates with a density of 7 x [10.sup.4] per well on four groups, and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was determined on the 7th and 14th days of osteoinduction
. The level of ALP was normalized to total protein content at the end of the experiment.
It promotes osteoinduction
and bone formation when incorporated with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) [16, 17].
The three fundamental properties of bone regeneration are osteogenesis, osteoinduction
, and osteoconduction.
For example, some have poor mechanical properties and display limited osteoinduction
in the clinic [16, 17].
After 1, 3, and 5 days of osteoinduction
, the cells were incubated with CCK-8 solution (consisting of 90% growth medium and 10% CCK-8) for 3 h at 37[degrees]C.
Definitive evidence of osteoinduction
in humans: a preliminary report.