Due to its osmolyte
characteristics, glutamate promotes fluid shifts into the astrocytes, causing cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure, and possibly causing the development of hepatic encephalopathy (Prakash & Mullen, 2010).
Creatine is thought to provide important neuro-protection for the brain through enhancing energy metabolism in brain tissue, promoting antioxidant activities, improving cerebral vasculation (improved brain circulation) and acting as a brain cell osmolyte
that can protect the brain against hyper-osmotic shock (Andres et al., 2008).
accumulation in xerophytes as a response to environmental stress.
Unlike synthetic betaine, natural betaine acts as an osmolyte
, improving intestinal health and reducing the negative impact of heat-stress on animal production.
Ammonia leads to an increase in intracellular glutamine, which acts as an intracellular osmolyte
causing astrocyte swelling (Pugliese et al., 2007) Removal of bacteria or foreign * infection-spontaneous bacterial materials peritonitis may develop due to translocation of intestinal flora.
The importance of cuticular permeability, osmolyte
production and body size for the desiccation resistance of nine species of Collembola.
On a cellular level, betaine is an organic osmolyte
that supports cell metabolism.
Although use of ions for osmotic adjustment may be energetically more favorable than biosynthesis of organic osmolyte
under osmotic stresses, many plants accumulate organic osmolytes
to tolerate osmotic stresses.
Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine (TMG), which has been used in human and animal nutrition for over 70 years as a methyl donor and osmolyte
, is now a GRAS ingredient in selected applications supported by clinical and safety studies.
Potassium concentration decreased as external salinity decre ased, demonstrating its role as an osmolyte
. When salinity and nutrients were altered, the same trend for tissue water and potassium emerged.
xylitol reduces the salt concentration of airway surface fluid and may enhance bacterial killing.