osmolal gap


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Related to osmolal gap: osmolar gap

osmolal gap

The difference between the measured osmolality of the plasma, and the calculated osmolality of the plasma (plasma glucose/18 + blood urea nitrogen/2.8 + sodium*2). A gap is present when the difference exceeds 10 mmol/kg of water. Osmolal gaps are present when unmeasured osmotically active solutes, such as toxins, e.g., methanol or ethylene glycol, are present in the plasma.
See also: gap
References in periodicals archive ?
Increased osmolal gap in alcoholic ketoacidosis and lactic acidosis.
Classic laboratory abnormalities include hyperammonemia, presence of an osmolal gap, hypernatremia, high anion gap metabolic acidosis, and elevated liver enzymes.
After hemodialysis was performed, the patient's postdialysis serum showed an osmolal gap of 6 mOsm/kg and an EG concentration of 50 mg/dL (8.2 mmol/L).
* Patients with AKA will present with an increased anion gap in combination with an increased osmolal gap. The crucial differential diagnoses for an increase in both the anion and osmotic gaps are DKA, lactic acidosis, or ingestion of methanol or ethylene glycol.
[1] Nonstandard abbreviations: OG, osmolal gap; ED, emergency department; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.
As it happened, we were alerted to a potential problem by the unusually large negative osmolal gaps in all 3 patients.
Background: The osmolal gap (OG) is a screening test for the detection of toxic volatiles such as methanol and ethylene glycol.
Other surrogate markers, e.g., measurement of the serum or plasma osmolality and calculation of the osmolal gap, have been studied as alternatives to direct assays of these alcohols (55,56).
At a given time after ingestion, the concentrations of the remaining ethylene glycol and the accumulated acidic metabolites affect the magnitude of the osmolal gap and anion gap, respectively.