The last case of naturally acquired smallpox disease, caused by the orthopoxvirus
variola virus (VARV), occurred in 1977, and the last laboratory-acquired case occurred in 1978.
7 Million challenge grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to support the development of protease inhibitors to treat orthopoxvirus
infections, such as smallpox and monkeypox.
The inoculation plan has caused some concern, since the vaccine uses live vaccinia, an Orthopoxvirus
belonging to the family Poxviridae, which includes other viruses such as variola (smallpox) and cow pox.
On March 8, lesion specimens were analyzed at the Illinois Department of Public Health Laboratory (IDPHL) in Chicago by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) orthopoxvirus
generic assay and nonvariola orthopoxvirus
DNA extracted from homogenates and virus isolated from the biopsy material were tested by orthopoxvirus
real-time PCR (1); results were positive for all 6 samples.
Laboratory confirmation of orthopoxvirus
infections, including vaccinia, requires test methods that are not commercially available.
Twenty-six states and DC (57%) reported their state public health laboratory could rapidly provide testing by orthopoxvirus
nonvariola polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and viral culture ([dagger]); 22 (47%) could provide testing by orthopoxvirus
PCR assay, 10 (21%) by a variola PCR assay, and seven (15%) by electron microscopy.
This is the first time we have data in primates that confirm a drug's potential activity against orthopoxvirus
The 50% plaque-reduction neutralization test showed that the father, mother, and 14-year-old daughter had neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus
(titers 800, 3,200, and 800 neutralizing units/mL, respectively).
In electron microscopy, cell culture and tear fluid samples contained particles with typical orthopoxvirus
One of the three was confirmed as having monkeypox; another person had two skin lesion specimens that tested negative for orthopoxvirus
and varicella zoster virus at the state health laboratory; no specimens were obtained for the third person who reported a single, dime-sized, pruritic and erythematous skin les ion (not pusrular) remote from the vaccination site that appeared 4 days after vaccination and faded within a week.
Demonstration of virus morphologically consistent with an orthopoxvirus
by electron microscopy in the absence of exposure to another orrhopoxvirus