Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Orlando (Pelletier), Ida Jean
(1926-2007),a nursing theorist who first described her nursing process theory in The Dynamic Nurse-Patient Relationship (1972). Her theory stresses the reciprocal relationship between the nurse and patient and the use of the nursing process to meet the patient's need and thus alleviate distress. Three elements-patient behavior, nurse reaction, and nursing actions-comprise a nursing situation. Orlando divided actions into those that are either automatic or deliberate. Perceptions, thoughts, and feelings are not explored in automatic actions. Deliberate actions are those that may yield solutions to problems and also prevent problems. She focused on the patient's verbal and nonverbal expressions of needs. The nurse reacts to the patient's behavior by discerning both the meaning of the distress and what would alleviate the distress. Orlando's contribution as a theorist has advanced nursing from personal and automatic responses to disciplined and professional practice responses.