anticoagulant

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anticoagulant

 [an″te-, an″ti-ko-ag´u-lant]
1. serving to prevent the coagulation of blood.
2. any substance that, in vivo or in vitro, suppresses, delays, or nullifies coagulation of the blood.
anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution citrate phosphate dextrose adenine.
anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose solution citrate phosphate dextrose.
anticoagulant therapy the therapeutic use of anticoagulants to discourage formation of blood clots within a blood vessel. Its main purpose is preventive; however, thrombolytic action of an anticoagulant can destroy a clot and thereby improve the condition of the ischemic tissue supplied by the affected vessel. Conditions in which this therapy is used include occlusive vascular disease, such as coronary occlusion, cerebrovascular and venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. It is administered prophylactically when major surgery is planned for a patient with a history of arterial stasis, and for patients who must be immobilized for a prolonged period of time.

Anticoagulant agents include those that interfere with the formation of clots (antithrombotics), such as heparin and the coumarin compounds, and those that are capable of disintegrating thrombi that have already formed (thrombolytics), such as streptokinase and urokinase. A third group of anticoagulants, the antiplatelet agents, prevent the clumping together of platelets, a primary step in the formation of thrombi, especially in the cerebrovascular system. These agents are classified as antithrombocytics and are not to be confused with or used as a substitute for other types of anticoagulants.
Patient Care. The major difficulties that may arise during the course of anticoagulant therapy are hemorrhage and drug interaction. Observation of the patient for early signs of internal as well as external spontaneous bleeding is of primary importance. Health care personnel responsible for the care of these patients must be knowledgeable about the various laboratory tests and interpretation of their results in the administration of anticoagulant drugs and in assessment of the patient.

The effects of anticoagulants can be enhanced or inhibited by a variety of drugs and chemical compounds, especially the salicylates, barbiturates, and antibiotics. Ambulatory patients must be cautioned against taking any other drugs in combination with an anticoagulant agent without first consulting with the health care provider who prescribed the drug. This includes nonprescription or “over-the-counter” drugs as well as prescription drugs. Dietary restrictions such as fasting diets or those that limit the intake or utilization of the fat-soluble vitamin K can result in increased pharmacologic action of an anticoagulant.

The patient and family should be given adequate instruction in the purposes of anticoagulant therapy, the effects and side effects of other drugs and dietary intake on anticoagulant agents, and the need for regular contact with members of the health care team so that adequate monitoring of the patient's status can be continued as long as the patient is receiving an anticoagulant.

Instruction of the patient and significant others should include prevention of accidental injury, basic first aid measures to control bleeding should an accident occur, the danger signs that warrant immediate medical attention, and assurance that bleeding can be controlled. A Medic Alert bracelet should be worn to alert health care professionals in an emergency situation that the patient is taking anticoagulants.

Women of childbearing age need counseling about the effects of anticoagulants on contraceptive methods and reproduction. Those who are taking an anticoagulant for prevention of emboli cannot use oral contraceptives or an intrauterine device, which could cause endometrial bleeding. Should a patient think she is or desires to be pregnant, the primary care provider should be notified at once. Warfarin crosses the placental barrier and can cause fatal hemorrhage in the fetus. It can also enter the mother's milk and have an anticoagulant effect in the nursing baby. Heparin does not have these properties and can be substituted for warfarin when necessary.

an·ti·co·ag·u·lant

(an'tē-kō-ag'ū-lant),
1. Preventing coagulation.
2. An agent having such action (for example, warfarin).

anticoagulant

(ăn′tē-kō-ăg′yə-lənt, ăn′tī-)
n.
A substance that prevents the clotting of blood.
adj.
Acting as an anticoagulant.

an′ti·co·ag′u·la′tive (-lā′tĭv, -lə-tĭv) adj.

anticoagulant

Any substance that prevents coagulation of blood.
 
Fringe oncology
Some alternative health providers believe anticoagulants may be used to inhibit the growth and spread of cancer.

Haematology
Anticoagulants administered to prevent or treat thromboembolic disorders include heparin, a parenteral agent which inactivates thrombin and other clotting factors, and oral anticoagulants (warfarin, dicumarol et al), which inhibit the hepatic synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors.
 
Lab medicine
Anticoagulants used to prevent clotting of blood specimens for lab analysis: heparin and substances that make Ca2+ unavailable for clotting (e.g., EDTA, citrate, oxalate, fluoride).
 
Medspeak, Vox populi
Blood thinner.
 
Transfusion medicine
Anticoagulant solutions used to preserve stored whole blood and blood fractions: ACD (acid citrate dextrose), CPD (citrate phosphate dextrose), CPDA-1 (citrate phosphate dextrose adenine) and heparin.

anticoagulant

A general term for any substance that prevents coagulation of blood Hematology Anticoagulants administered to prevent or treat thromboembolic disorders include heparin, a parenteral agent which inactivates thrombin and other clotting factors and oral anticoagulants–warfarin, dicumarol et al, which inhibit the hepatic synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors Lab medicine Anticoagulants used to prevent clotting of blood specimens for laboratory analysis: heparin and substances that make Ca2+ unavailable for clotting–eg, EDTA, citrate, oxalate, fluoride Medtalk Blood thinner Transfusion medicine Anticoagulant solutions used to preserve stored whole blood and blood fractions: ACD–acid citrate dextrose, CPD–citrate phosphate dextrose, CPDA-1–citrate phosphate dextrose adenine and heparin
Anticoagulants–categories & uses
  • Coumadin ® Prevent blood clot formation
  • Heparin Prevent blood clot formation
  • Thrombolytics, eg tPA, streptokinase–dissolve blood clots

an·ti·co·ag·u·lant

(an'tē-kō-ag'yŭ-lănt)
1. Preventing coagulation.
2. An agent having such action (e.g., warfarin ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid).

anticoagulant

(ant?i-ko-ag'yu-lant) [ anti- + coagulant]
1. Delaying or preventing blood coagulation.
Enlarge picture
ANTICOAGULATION: Bruising and bleeding, common side effects of anticoagulation.
2. An agent that prevents or delays blood coagulation. Common anticoagulants include heparin, sodium citrate, and warfarin sodium. See: illustration

coumarin anticoagulant

Any of a group of natural and synthetic compounds that inhibit blood clotting by antagonizing the biosynthesis of vitamin K–dependent coagulation factors in the liver.
See: dicumarol; warfarin sodium

warfarin sodium anticoagulant

See: warfarin sodium

anticoagulant

A drug used to limit the normal clotting processes of the blood. Anticoagulants are used in conditions in which dangerous clots can form in blood vessels. Anticoagulant drugs include HEPARIN, LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HEPARIN and WARFARIN. Anticoagulant treatment carries its own dangers, specifically those related to internal bleeding. The principal danger is of bleeding within the skull and resultant STROKE. The danger is greatest in elderly people with high blood pressure. This may be spontaneous or may follow quite minor trauma to the head. Careful control of dosage with regular blood checks of PROTHROMBIN TIME, and the avoidance of head injury, minimize the risk.

anticoagulant

a substance that hinders AGGLUTINATION or clotting of blood cells. BLOOD CLOTTING is a vital reaction to damage in the circulatory system, one of the steps in the process being dependent on the presence of calcium ions. However, the tendency of blood to clot can be overcome by suitable chemicals that remove calcium, such chemicals being used as anticoagulants when storage of blood is required. Many bloodsucking parasites such as mosquitoes secrete anticoagulants into the host's bloodstream, so enabling blood to be easily transported into the parasite's digestive system.

Anticoagulant

Drug used to prevent clot formation or to prevent a clot that has formed from enlarging. Anticoagulant drugs inhibit clot formation by blocking the action of clotting factors or platelets. Anticoagulant drugs fall into three groups: inhibitors of clotting factor synthesis, inhibitors of thrombin and antiplatelet drugs.

an·ti·co·ag·u·lant

(an'tē-kō-ag'yŭ-lănt)
An agent that prevents coagulation (e.g., warfarin).
References in periodicals archive ?
The researchers analyzed nationwide claims data for 6,893 adults covered by Aetna who had newly diagnosed nonvalvular AF and were prescribed an oral anticoagulant between October 2010 and June 2013.
(8-10) Compared with warfarin, dabigatran is the only oral anticoagulant with a lower rate of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke.
This study supports the consensus that dental extractions can be performed without alteration of oral anticoagulant treatment.
The only oral anticoagulant currently on the market is the drug warfarin sodium (Coumadin).
Oral anticoagulants Oral anticoagulants plus argatroban (a) PT ranges, s (and INR) Factor X %, NHP 10-15(1.3 [+ or -] 0.2) 89.9 [+ or -] 12.6 86.4 [+ or -] 13.9 15-20(1.9 [+ or -] 0.3) 59.7 [+ or -] 18.7 51.7 [+ or -] 20.4 20-25(2.5 [+ or -] 0.4) 38.7 [+ or -] 12.4 38.7 [+ or -] 12.4 >25(3.2 [+ or -] 0.5) 29.4 [+ or -] 10.7 29.4 [+ or -] 10.7 (a) Argatroban supplemented in vitro at 5 [micro]g/mL.
Enabling clinicians to determine the optimum ranges for patient treatment more easily should help lower the incidence of adverse effects associated with oral anticoagulants, such as bleeding complications, thus in turn reducing health care costs and laboratory liability.
However, these trials were constrained to comparing direct-acting oral anticoagulants with warfarin or aspirin, and have not involved head-to-head comparison among the newer agents, they added.
The researchers whittled this down to 21,678 patients who began for the first time treatment with an oral anticoagulant starting during or after January 2014; had no history of a stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, or gastrointestinal bleed; and weighed no more than 60 kg.
(10) Directacting oral anticoagulants have been FDA approved since 2010 (Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at http://links.lww.com/JNN/A158).
Verseon's PRrecision Oral AntiCoagulants (PROACs) have shown excellent efficacy in multiple preclinical studies without disruption of platelet function.
As seen in the results of this study are significant side effects that cannot be ignored; bleeding risk in patients using oral anticoagulants. (1)
Its management includes oral anticoagulants like vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOAC) and large studies demonstrated that NOACs are equal to VKAs in stroke prevention have a lower risk of intracranial hemorrhage and a lower overall bleeding risk, but a higher incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding [5].