CCA in this region of the world results from a neglected tropical disease, chronic liver fluke infection, caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish infected with Opisthorchis viverrini
Among these trematodes is Opisthorchis viverrini
, a liver fluke that can cause cholangiocarcinoma, a cancer of the bile ducts, in humans (Sripa et al.
After being thrashed by the quackbusters that a human liver fluke endemic to Southeast Asia could be causal in cancer cases, scientists from the Queensland Institute of Medical Research collaborating with George Washington University have found that another human liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini
) contributes to the development of liver cancer by secreting granulin, a growth hormone that is known to cause uncontrolled cell growth.
Indeed, both species of liver flukes that most commonly infect humans (Opisthorchis viverrini
and Clonorchis sinensis) have been declared Group 1 carcinogens by the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer [14, 15].
Potential risk factors of CCA are parasitic infections (Opisthorchis viverrini
and Clonorchis sinensis), bile duct disorders (biliary tract cysts and hepatolithiasis), toxins, complications (diabetes, cirrhosis, and obesity), alcohol consumption, and smoking .
Sripa, "Rapid detection of Opisthorchis viverrini
copro-DNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)," Parasitology International, vol.
Parasites, such as Ascaris, liver fluke (including Clonorchis sinensis, and Opisthorchis viverrini
), and Schistosoma, account for intrahepatic stone as well.
The major risk of CCA in most countries is the primary sclerosing cholangitis, but in Asian countries the major risk factor is liver fluke infection (Opisthorchis viverrini
and Clonorchis sinensis).
Sequences and gene organization of the mitochondrial genomes of the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini
and Clonorchis sinensis (Trematoda).
Liver flukes, Opisthorchis viverrini
(OV), represent the trematode and it is a strong risk factor of cholangiocarcinoma in Thai and southeast Asian countries (Sriamporn et al., 2004; Shin et al, 2010).
PCR diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini
and Haplorchistaichui infections in an endemic Lao community: a comparison of diagnostic methods for parasitological field surveys.
revolutum, Clonorchis sinensis, and Opisthorchis viverrini