ENK are produced from a propeptide precursor, proenkephalin (proENK), which is translated from preproenkephalin mRNA that is encoded by a gene distinct from the other endogenous opioid peptides
Among the neurotransmitters that affect the release of gonadal secretions are endogenous opioid peptides
like enkephalin, dynorphin, beta endorphins etc.
The interactions between leukocyte-derived opioid peptides
and peripheral nociceptor endings carrying opioid receptors (24,25) may explain the connection of the pathophysiologic common basis of all the examined variables in our study with the pain mechanisms.
This dimeric opioid peptide
also induced neuroprotective action on neurons in rat organotypic hippocampal cultures, which was abolished by naltrexone .
Endogenous opioid peptides
have a well-defined role in neuroendocrine system, given that regulate the activity of gonadotropin releasing neurons (GnRH) and consequently secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), gonadal steroid production and sexual behavior (RUSSELL et al., 1998).
Leu5-enkephalin, which was also investigated in the present study, belongs to a group of opioid peptides
Bryan Fry, a researcher from the University of Queensland, Australia, said in a statement Thursday: "The fish injects other fish with opioid peptides
that act like heroin or morphine, inhibiting pain rather than causing it.
During childhood, the LHRH surge is repressed through inhibitory signals in the hypothalamus mediated by [gamma]-aminobutyric acid and opioid peptides
(Terasawa and Fernandez 2001).
Acupuncture related to the release of endogenous opioid peptides
(enkephalin, beta-endorphin and dynorphin) from the central nervous system, and opioids are known to increase dopaminergic neuron activity in the mesolimbic brain region [7, 8].
Additionally, we found that that globulin and prolamins fractions may have antithrombotic and opioid peptides
, respectively, which can act as platelet aggregation inhibitors and powerful painkiller [14, 39].
. Opioid activation leads to the processing of opioid peptides
from their precursor, proenkephalin and the simultaneous release of antibacterial peptides contained within the precursor as well.
Opioids bind to opiate receptors within the central nervous system (CNS) to activate endogenous opioid peptides
, such as endorphins and enkephalins, and produce a change in perception of pain known as analgesia (Vallerand, Sanoski, & Deglin, 2014).