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A traditional branch of metaphysics that deals with problems of being, existence, inner nature, meaning, etc. It is fundamental to problems involving normality and disease, individuality, responsibility, and the analysis of values. In recent years, it has been slowly assuming a place as a branch of medicine proper.


A formal specification of how to represent relationships among objects, concepts, and other entities belonging to a particular area of human experience or knowledge.
References in periodicals archive ?
Misunderstandings about some property-based distinctions between ontologies and models have been undertaken by a lot of different proposals [7].
Several studies have given empirical evidence for the dominating role of ontologies integrated with specific, previously experienced situations (what we call cases) in human problem solving.
The next finding was about the purpose of developing ontologies. Majority of participants (69.9%) used ontologies to share common understanding of the structure of information among people and software agents, and some 56.3% use ontologies to enable reuse of domain knowledge.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the related works; Section 3 gives some basic concepts of ontology, ontology alignment, and the similarity measures; Section 4 presents the optimal model problem and the details of the compact Coevolutionary Algorithm for matching biomedical ontologies; Section 5 gives the experimental results and relevant analysis; finally, Section 6 draws the conclusions.
In recent years, many concepts of ontologies have been presented and defended by different authors (Gruber, 1993; Guarino, 1995; Guarino & Giaretta, 1995; Noy & McGuinness, 2001; Guizzardi, 2005; Almeida, 2013).
Next in the flow are existing ontologies and adopting ontologies.
perspective that focuses on the power dynamics produced in the encounter between the dominant modern ontology and Indigenous ontologies as they are embodied in concrete practices (Blaser, 2009b: 18, emphasis added).
Crisp ontologies, based on first-order logic formalisms, are not suitable for handling imperfect knowledge.
Ontologies on the other hand, have in many ways been visualised as conceptualisations that can encode constituents of knowledge into a single domain in order to deduce simpler inferences.
Ontologies, as the foundational component of semantic technologies, provide a framework for the "standardization of concepts and relationships used to describe and represent an area of knowledge", in order to support interoperability and facilitate access and reuse of knowledge (W3C).
At the framework level, (1) we verified the correctness of framework mapping (table 2) by first comparing the asserted hierarchies of the new and GSPAS ontologies, and then by comparing the respective inferred hierarchies.
A number of ontologies related to security and intrusion detection have been identified [8], [9].

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