For example, single application of TPA and okadaic acid
class tumor promoters induced TNF-[alpha] gene expression in mouse skin and increased the release of TNF-[alpha] from various cancer cells.
Inhibition of PP2A, but not PP5, mediates p53 activation by low levels of okadaic acid
in rat liver epithelial cells.
Shellfish and phytoplankton samples were collected in the coastal waters of Primorsky Krai from 2009 to 2012, and analyzed for DST using LC-MS/MS, the approved regulatory method in the European Union and United States, and compared with results using the Abraxis Okadaic Acid
(OA) ELISA and protein phosphatase 2a (PP2A) test kits.
Codon 61 mutations in the c-Harvey-ras gene in mouse skin tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene plus okadaic acid
class tumor promoters.
Inhibitory effect of a marine-sponge toxin, okadaic acid
, on protein phosphatases.
The published chemical isolation scheme has been streamlined considerably by Fenwick scientist Tingmo Hu and Wright so that high quality okadaic acid
is now readily obtained from either sponge or phytoplankton.
The toxins of the okadaic acid
(OA) group, such as OA and dinophysistoxins (DTXs), are considered to be responsible for diarrhea.
2 mM okadaic acid
for another 24 h, resulting in induction of TNF-[alpha] release.
depuration in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis: one- and two-compartment models and the effect of environmental conditions.
Moreover CAPE seems to inhibit the activation by tumor necrosis factor and other antinflammatoy agents, such as phorbol ester, ceramide, hydrogen peroxide and okadaic acid
, of the transcription factor NF-[kappa]B (Natarajan et al, 1996) which regulates the expression of many genes involved in inflammation (Wulczyn et al.
32]P-labeled 19-amino acid peptide substrate in the presence of okadaic acid
to inhibit phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (22).
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) such as okadaic acid
and dinophysistoxin-1, and other lipophilic toxins such as pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and yessotoxin were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).