odds ratio

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odds ratio

ratio of two odds, but as used in the analysis of data from a case control study, a simple calculation, also called the cross-products ratio, which yields an approximate value for the relative risk of the exposure that has been examined in a case control study.

odds ratio

Epidemiology Cross-product ratio, exposure odds ratio overdispersion A measure of association in a case-control study which quantifies the relationship between an exposure and health outcome from a comparative study. See Absolute risk reduction, Number needed to treat, Relative risk.

odds ratio

In epidemiological case-control studies, a relative measure of the occurrence of disease. The odds in favor of a particular disease occurring in an exposed group are divided by the odds in favor of its occurring in an unexposed group. If the condition being studied is rare, the odds ratio is a close approximation to the relative risk.
Synonym: events odds ratio See: relative risk
References in periodicals archive ?
With endogeneity, the estimated coefficients will be biased and inconsistent, as will all marginal effects, odds ratios, and any other statistic derived from the estimated parameters.
Many publications, especially publications in epidemiology, assume that larger odds ratios correspond to higher relative risks.
Significantly higher risks were obtained in men working as hairdressers, metal workers, miners and auto mechanics having odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals 3.42(CI=1.09-10.8), 2.40(CI=1.29-4.50), 1.94(CI=1.18-3.17) and 1.69(CI=1.02-2.82), respectively.
There was also an elevated risk for autoimmune disorders among the children with IBD, with odds ratios of 2.6 for hypothyroidism and 1.9 for type 1 diabetes.
Women with a current major depressive episode had an almost 11-fold increased risk of suicidal ideation in the postpartum period, based on multivariate analysis (odds ratio 10.8).
In logistic regression analyses that controlled for age at Medicaid enrollment, length of enrollment, Alaska Native status and Anchorage residence, young women with a reproductive health claim were more likely than other Medicaid enrollees to be referred for any reason to child protective services (odds ratio, 2.9) or to have experienced physical (1.6) or sexual abuse (2.3) during the study period.
The odds ratio for late childhood death in those born extremely preterm was 6.3 for males (no females died in late childhood in this group), and for those born very preterm they were 1.9 for males, and 0.9 for females, said Dr.
Bacterial cure rates with cephalosporins were strongly superior to penicillin in trials from the United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Sweden, with odds ratios ranging from 3.35 to 4.77.
Data obtained from a large, ongoing population-based, case-control study show that women who used any SSRI between 1 month before and 3 months after conception had a significantly increased likelihood of having an infant with omphalocele, compared with those who reported no SSRI exposure during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 3.3).
In particular, it has been argued that prevalence ratios are the preferred method and that prevalence odds ratios (PORs) should not be used.
Differences in treatment effects can be expressed as absolute differences or as odds ratios. No difference, for example, corresponds to an absolute difference of zero or an odds ratio of 1.0.
For both men and women working in the chemical industry there were odds ratios of 5.56 and 5.69 respectively for developing asthma.

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