Although most textbooks and published papers write the odds ratio
as the exponentiated coefficient, in this case exp ([[[beta].sub.smoke]/[sigma]]), we purposefully leave in [sigma].
The shaded areas in Figure 1 show the relationship between the relative risk and odds ratio
. The only situation in which a one-to-one correspondence between the two measures occurs is the special case in which r = [theta] =1.
(ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for smoking were adjusted for age and study.
The case for using the prevalence ratio essentially reduces to the assertion that it is obviously the better measure whereas the odds ratio
is "unintelligible," and that when a disease is common the prevalence ratio and the POR may differ substantially.
Adjustments for other confounding variables and effect modifiers--including maternal smoking, education, folic acid use, and gravidity--did not have a significant effect on the odds ratios
The odds ratio
of a trichomonas infection associated with vaginal symptoms was 3.7, while the odds ratio
of trichomonas infection associated with urinary symptoms was only 0.7.
Ghannoum found that risk factors for spread included infection with Trichophyton rubrum (six times the odds ratio
), infection with T.
In the multivariate analysis, the odds of re traction were significantly elevated among males (odds ratio
, 1.8), blacks (1.6), youth who had reported sexual experience at Wave 1 (3.2) and those who had experienced first intercourse between survey waves (3.2); the odds were reduced among adolescents who said that they answered sensitive survey questions honestly (0.5).
Among 10 European studies comparing 10 days of penicillin versus 10 days of cephalosporins in the bacterial eradication of GAS in a total of 1,656 pediatric patients with tonsillopharyngitis, the odds ratio
was 4.27 in favor of cephalosporins.
Compared with the youngest women, those in this group were about half as likely to attempt VBAC (adjusted odds ratio
0.46) and somewhat more likely to have a failed VBAC (adjusted odds ratio
At the age of 5 months, comforting a child outside his or her bed increased the risk of sleep problems more than fivefold (odds ratio
The likelihood of this outcome was significantly elevated for women who had had vaginal bleeding within 24 hours before the procedure (odds ratio
, 1.8) and for women who were nulliparous (2.0) or had given birth only once (1.8).