class="MsoNormalOCULAR MUSCLES During the first year after diagnosis, my ocular muscles
were the most affected.
The orbit is an anatomically complex structure in bony socket of skull having globe, includes eye lids, eye ball, extra ocular muscles
, cranial nerves, blood vessels, fat, lacrimal glands, ducts, ciliary ganglions, supported by ligaments and different supportive muscles of the face.1,2 Inflammation or neoplastic lesions of orbit, all affect quality of life greatly.3
(4) Ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid) can be unilateral or bilateral (5) and occurs because the extra ocular muscles
The globe along with orbital fat and extra ocular muscles
Moreover, the authors say, "An imbalance in the ocular muscles
tone can cause a movement dysfunction at the sphenoid bone, at the maxilla and at the ocular muscle
nerves." In addition to muscle contraction, flexibility between the bones in the eye orbit and skull - particularly the phenopetrosal suture, the occipitomastoid suture, and the lacrimal bone--are key for functional drainage in the head and preventing IOP.
Another mechanism suggested in Graves' ophthalmopathy is that the autoantigen called calsequestrin derived from ocular muscles
serves as a target of autoimmunity .
MG typically begins with weakness in the ocular muscles
and often progresses to the more severe and generalised form, known as gMG, to include weakness of the head, neck, trunk, limb and respiratory muscles.
The entire process is associated with the ocular muscles
, nerves, or local brain areas that are involved in 3D viewing; therefore, the modification of visual plasticity may lead to the modification of these components of the visual system to a certain extent.
The ocular muscles
are elevated by several suture threads.
Intraocular pressure is determined by the volume of aqueous humor, central corneal thickness, choroidal blood volume, rigidity, scleral compliance, tone of extra ocular muscles
and external pressure.
So I went one better: the Alexandra Eye Pavilion in Edinburgh made me a beautiful false eye in acrylic, much thicker than a contact lens, which sits over the eyeball and is moved by my ocular muscles
just like the real thing.
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular signal transmission, resulting in fatigable weakness that commonly involves the ocular muscles
and can also involve the respiratory muscles.