Industry competition, environmental uncertainty, prior acquisition experience, geographic proximity, and managerial incentives are important mechanisms affecting observational learning
More complex cognitive processes, including problem solving and observational learning
, have been studied in Octopus vulgaris (Fiorito and Scotto, 1992; Richter et al.
and the effects of model-observer similarity.
The effects of an observational intervention on the emergence of two types of observational learning
Participants who are individually taught different behaviors during small-group direct instruction may learn behaviors taught to their peers; this is referred to as observational learning
(Bandura, 1977), which results in increased teaching efficiency.
What took place between the two children in the study is regarded as observational learning
, because the girl watched her friend, waited a bit, and later practiced it.
Bandura's observational learning
theory, which highlights the beneficial effects on cognitive development and one's competence at a task that are derived by watching other people, is one of the most influential theories of learning and development (Lefrancois, 1999).
Past research suggests that video content may have greater impact by providing an observational learning
experience and creating the opportunity for cognitive engagement.
This edition has updated content; new topics like evaluative conditioning, asocial observational learning
, computer-based VRET (virtual reality exposure therapy), progressive schedules, and constraint-induced movement therapy; more studies, especially those that are controversial or counterintuitive; new applications, including the use of Pavlovian and operant procedures for diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of medical disorders; and replacement of the Miller-Dollard theory of observational learning
with a generic operant learning theory.
Data-collection tools involved a self-designed questionnaire based on SCT: demographic characteristics (7 items), behavioural capability (17 items), outcome expectations (10 items), self-efficacy in difficult situations (10 items), self-efficacy in selecting F and V (4 items), access to F and V (4 items), social support (8 items), observational learning
(6 items), and 2 open-ended items related to F and V preferences.
An important SCT process is observational learning
McHugh, Lenz, Reardon and Peterson provide evidence that observational learning
and modelling are demonstrably influential upon how students seek career information.